'Dante vivo', 1997-2016 © Julia Bolton Holloway, Carlo Poli, Società Dantesca Italiana, Federico Bardazzi, Ensemble San Felice, Richard Holloway, Akita Noek
up/Cliccare su Purgatorio
Call up/Cliccare su Purgatorio2AntonioCrassi.mp3
era 'l sole a l'orizzonte giunto
lo cui meridïan cerchio coverchia
Ierusalèm col suo più alto punto;
e la notte, che
opposita a lui
uscia di Gange fuor con le Bilance,
che le caggion di man quando soverchia;
sì che le bianche e
le vermiglie guance,
là dov' i' era, de la bella Aurora
per troppa etate divenivan rance.
Noi eravam lunghesso
come gente che pensa a suo cammino,
che va col cuore e col corpo dimora.
Ed ecco, qual,
per li grossi vapor Marte rosseggia
giù nel ponente sovra 'l suol marino,
s'io ancor lo
un lume per lo mar venir sì ratto,
che 'l muover suo nessun volar pareggia.
Dal qual com' io un
l'occhio per domandar lo duca mio,
rividil più lucente e maggior fatto.
Poi d'ogne lato ad
un non sapeva che bianco, e di sotto
a poco a poco un altro a lui uscìo.
Lo mio maestro ancor
non facea motto,
mentre che i primi bianchi apparver ali;
allor che ben conobbe il galeotto,
gridò: «Fa, fa che
Ecco l'angel di Dio: piega le mani;
omai vedrai di sì fatti officiali.
Vedi che sdegna li
sì che remo non vuol, né altro velo
che l'ali sue, tra liti sì lontani.
Vedi come l'ha
dritte verso 'l
trattando l'aere con l'etterne penne,
che non si mutan come mortal pelo».
Poi, come più e più
l'uccel divino, più chiaro appariva:
per che l'occhio da presso nol sostenne,
ma chinail giuso; e
quei sen venne a riva
con un vasello snelletto e leggero,
tanto che l'acqua nulla ne 'nghiottiva.
Da poppa stava il
tal che faria beato pur descripto;
e più di cento spirti entro sediero.
`In exitu Isräel
cantavan tutti insieme ad una voce
con quanto di quel salmo è poscia scripto.
Poi fece il segno
lor di santa
ond' ei si gittar tutti in su la piaggia:
ed el sen gì, come venne, veloce.
La turba che rimase
parea del loco, rimirando intorno
come colui che nove cose assaggia.
Da tutte parti
lo sol, ch'avea con le saette conte
di mezzo 'l ciel cacciato Capricorno,
quando la nova gente
ver' noi, dicendo a noi: «Se voi sapete,
mostratene la via di gire al monte».
E Virgilio rispuose:
forse che siamo esperti d'esto loco;
ma noi siam peregrin come voi siete.
innanzi a voi un
per altra via, che fu sì aspra e forte,
che lo salire omai ne parrà gioco».
L'anime, che si fuor
per lo spirare, ch'i' era ancor vivo,
maravigliando diventaro smorte.
E come a messagger
tragge la gente per udir novelle,
e di calcar nessun si mostra schivo,
così al viso mio
anime fortunate tutte quante,
quasi oblïando d'ire a farsi belle.
Io vidi una di lor
per abbracciarmi con sì grande affetto,
che mosse me a far lo somigliante.
Ohi ombre vane, fuor
tre volte dietro a lei le mani avvinsi,
e tante mi tornai con esse al petto.
per che l'ombra sorrise e si ritrasse,
e io, seguendo lei, oltre mi pinsi.
allor conobbi chi era, e pregai
che, per parlarmi, un poco s'arrestasse.
nel mortal corpo, così t'amo sciolta:
però m'arresto; ma tu perché vai?».
«Casella mio, per
là dov' io son, fo io questo vïaggio»,
diss' io; «ma a te com' è tanta ora tolta?».
Ed elli a me:
«Nessun m'è fatto oltraggio,
se quei che leva quando e cui li piace,
più volte m'ha negato esto passaggio;
ché di giusto voler
lo suo si
veramente da tre mesi elli ha tolto
chi ha voluto intrar, con tutta pace.
Ond' io, ch'era ora
a la marina
dove l'acqua di Tevero s'insala,
benignamente fu' da lui ricolto.
A quella foce ha
elli or dritta
però che sempre quivi si ricoglie
qual verso Acheronte non si cala».
E io: «Se nuova
legge non ti
memoria o uso a l'amoroso canto
che mi solea quetar tutte mie doglie,
di ciò ti piaccia
l'anima mia, che, con la sua persona
venendo qui, è affannata tanto!».
Londra, British Library, Harley 978, fol. 11v, Reading Abbey motet
`Amor che ne la
mente mi ragiona'
cominciò elli allor sì dolcemente,
che la dolcezza ancor dentro mi suona.
Lo mio maestro e io
ch'eran con lui parevan sì contenti,
come a nessun toccasse altro la mente.
Noi eravam tutti
a le sue note; ed ecco il veglio onesto
gridando: «Che è ciò, spiriti lenti?
quale stare è
Correte al monte a spogliarvi lo scoglio
ch'esser non lascia a voi Dio manifesto».
cogliendo biado o
li colombi adunati a la pastura,
queti, sanza mostrar l'usato orgoglio,
se cosa appare ond'
subitamente lasciano star l'esca,
perch' assaliti son da maggior cura;
così vid' io quella
lasciar lo canto, e fuggir ver' la costa,
com' om che va, né sa dove rïesca;
né la nostra partita
Londra, British Library, Yates Thompson 36, fol. 68
DANTE AS TIMOTHEUS:
PURGATORIO II AND THE MUSIC OF THE COMMEDIA
Julia Bolton Holloway
I. Purgatorio II’s Polyphony: The First Motet of Seven
On the shores of Purgatory Dante and Virgil pause from their pilgrimage to listen to the seductive and vainglorious words of Dante’s own ‘Amor, che ne la mente mi ragiona’ sung solo in the dolce stil nuovo of the Tuscan vernacular by his friend Casella.1 In so doing they forget the plain chant of a hundred puritanical pilgrim souls who sang Psalm 113, ‘In exitu Israel de Aegypto’, to its unique tonus peregrinus, a capella, in unison, disembarking on the mountain island journeying by sea from the Tiber. It had been the psalm Hebrew pilgrims sang in Exodus, when coming to Jerusalem and its Temple, before Christ.2
It was particularly used in the Easter Baptism liturgy, which in Florence took place only in the Baptistery, where Dante, as a babe in arms, would have seen the mosaics of its octagon, narrating the Bible. Then, as a child growing up by Florence’s Badia, he would often hear the monks chant this Psalm with its great antiquity, especially embedded in the liturgical Hours of Prayer for Sunday’s Vespers. Dante, three times, used this psalm, basing his pilgrim allegory upon it.3 It is the oldest, plainest music in the Commedia.
In contrast to it, these same pilgrim souls
are seduced by Casella’s voice singing solo Dante’s dolce stil nuovo
rhymes, the Commedia’s
newest music, in organum,
in a motet, in polyphony, to the ancient psalm. Documents
exist in Siena’s archives where Casella is fined for singing
in the streets, disturbing the peace.4
The pilgrims are next rudely, shockingly,
interrupted by the harsh cry of stern puritanical Cato in
prose, chiding them for their negligence and bidding them rush
to the mountain, to return immediately to their penitential
pilgrimage.5 Figurally and iconographically, in this scene, Cato is as
Moses, Virgil as Aaron, who permitted the Golden Calf
worshipping, the Psalm being godly, Dante’s lyric, instead, a
Golden Calf, this iconography especially shown in the
miniature to Purgatorio
II in a Neapolitan Commedia
manuscript – which even graphically shows Dante’s baptism by
Virgil, the virtuous pagan.6
It is possible, as in the thirteenth-century
Reading Abbey motet of the bawdy lines of ‘Sumer is icumin
in’, sung simultaneously in a round with the sacred Latin
‘Perspice cristicolae’, and in the thirteenth-early fourteenth
century motets given in the Montpellier H 196 manuscript,7
to put together these two contradictory pieces of music, the
psalm chant, the love lyric, polyphonically. But not
initially. The two are worlds apart. Though that diversity
will be blended
at the end of the Commedia
in a vernacular Franciscan lauda sung as prayer
by a famed Latin-writing allegorist on the Song of Songs of
Solomon, Cistercian St Bernard. Scholars have studied such
obverse/reverse juxtapositions between the bawdy and the
sacred in the macaronic use of the vulgar vernacular and the
sacred Latin in texts, and in medieval manuscript miniatures
and borders, our heritage from Mikhail Bakhtin and Michael
Camille.8 But we also need to do so for medieval
music and its use of motets, especially in Dante’s dolce stil nuovo and
ars nova world of
the Vita nova and
II. Boethius on Polyphony
Boethius, in De Institutione Musica
based on Pythagorean teaching, in a passage in Doric Greek
condemns Timotheus for inventing polyphonia, for
arrogantly adding extra strings to the harp, polychordia, and for
being vainglorious, Sparta therefore exiling him.9
Then Boethius in exile himself became as Timotheus, using
poetic dialectic in his De
consolatione philosophiae, where his persona progresses
from sonneteering self-pity, in bondage with multiple whores
of the theatre, to the liberty of philosophical wisdom, God’s
Daughter, in a splendid healing palinode. Dante will do the
same, his pilgrim persona
in the Vita nova
journeying jokingly from adulterous lechery to Christian
salvation, in the Commedia
progressing from pagan pride to Christian humility, in both
from folly to wisdom. These works become his Augustinian Confessions, his
Collodian Pinocchio, first wallowing in the eating of stolen
fruit, then converting to Truth. And he does so as well in the
music of his Commedia.
Dante and Virgil Luca Signorelli, Orvieto, Fresco
Imola, Bibl. Com. 37, fol 7r
Medieval manuscripts present Dante the
character, the pilgrim, who blunders and sins, within the
text, in blue, as the Sorcerer’s Apprentice to Virgil the
Necromancer, as the medieval world saw Publius Vergilius Maro,10
while outside the textual frame, as wise author, Dante
Alighieri is in doctoral red, in teachers’ robes. In this,
Dante is copying Boethius' schizophrenic split between his
character, the foolish Boethius, and his wise soul,
Philosophia, with Dante himself as both the foolish student in
blue, 'Dante Pilgrim', the wise author in red, 'Dante Auctor'.
Boethius opens his discussion of music in De Institutione musica
with the Pythagorean teaching that we are greatly influenced
sensually and morally by music, which can incite us to
violence or lechery, or which can channel excessive grief into
salus. He divides
music into the harmony of the spheres, then the human music of
the soul, and, last and least, instrumental music. Of the
instruments, stringed lyres with seven strings replicating the
seven spheres, are the highest, wind and percussion
instruments being the lowest, Francesco Ciabattoni in Dante’s Journey to Polyphony noting the references to trumpets, drums and
lutes in the Inferno,
but generally to vocal music only, save in similes, in Purgatorio and Paradiso.11
Timotheus is particularly condemned because he invents not
only polyphony but adds extra strings to the seven of the harp
to a total of eleven, distorting its music which should
replicate that of the seven/ten spheres. Ciabattoni notes that
Pope John XXII likewise condemned the use of polyphony, of
vulgar motets, ‘motetis
vulgaribus’, in his Bull, Docta sanctorum partum,
1324-25 (p. 36). Dante himself notes that the use of ‘organum’
mitigates against the words’ meanings being understood (Purgatorio
IX.144-45), unlike the clarity of sung Gregorian chant in
stone structures. Boethius next plunges into ratios,
proportions and harmonies.
III. Dante’s Education
Guidi Cavalcanti, Dante Alighieri, and Francesco da Barberino were all students of Brunetto Latino, who had travelled in Spain and France and who himself wrote a lauda while collecting Provençal lyrics. This Boethian-influenced Tesoro manuscript in the Laurentian Library, which I am currently editing, shows Brunetto in red teaching Dante, who is in apprentice blue, and Francesco da Barberino.
Brunetto’s students delighted in composing lyrics that were then set to music, Boccaccio tells us in Trattattello in lauda di Dante Alighieri15 Thus we see them in the context of the dolce stil nuovo, rebelliously singing and playing musical accompaniments with their friends, daring each other to break all Pythagorean rules of decorum. Imagine them as Timotheus. Imagine them as like the Beatles of Liverpool.
Florence’s Biblioteca Nazionale Banco Rari 217’s Canzoniere Palatina contains both Sicilian and Tuscan lyrics, including ones by Guido Cavalcanti, with the portraits of their poets, Guittone d’Arezzo, Notaro Iacomo Lentini, Pier delle Vigne, Guido Guinizelli, Bonagiunta Urbiciani, and Guido Cavalcanti.16 The De vulgari eloquentia clusters Dante’s lyrics with those by ‘Arnaldus Danielis, Guido Guinizelli, Guido Cavalcantis’, giving that by Folquetus (Folco of Marseilles, whom we meet in Paradiso IX), as ‘Tan m’abellis l’amoros pensamen’.17 Leonardo Bruni in Vita e costumi di Dante lists Guido Guinizelli, Guittone d’Arezzo, Bonagiunta da Lucca.18 In such canzonieri, whether Sicilian, Provençal, Swiss or Tuscan, with author portraits, we realise we are in an oral culture, where these portraits and their accompanying songs represent voices, and which are echoed again in the Commedia, save for that of Cavalcanti – whose dolce stil nuovo was silenced to exile and death by Dante as Prior. From these Dante initially constructs his Vita nova of love lyrics with the vida and razio, discussing them in De vulgari eloquentia II and the Convivio, then recycling several of these lyrics in his Commedia’s motets.
IV. Dante’s Sevenfold Polyphony
For fifteen years in Florence I have worked on a project called ‘Dante vivo’, after Giovanni Papini's 1933 book title, seeking to make the education of Dante in Italy and elsewhere more true to his medieval sensuality and for which I have placed on the web the entire oral reading of the Commedia by Carlo Poli, the actor son of contadini from the Mugello.
In particular, with the music, I found Dante teaches both the history of music from Psalm 113 to the ars nova of his day, in Purgatory giving the psalm and hymn music of the liturgical Offices, then from the Terrestrial Paradise on, the music of the Mass - and also that his music maps the geography of his exile, going from Florence to Verona and Ravenna.
In Florence, for the 750th anniversary of Dante’s birth, the Ensemble San Felice of Federico Bardazzi and Marco Di Manno at my suggestion performed the music of Dante’s Commedia, making use of the manuscripts of the period, the ecclesiastical music of Florence, Padua, Verona and Ravenna already being carefully documented, while we performed his secular lyrics, for which the music has not survived, with contrafactum from music manuscripts of lyrics in canzonieri and laudari in Tuscan, Gallegos, Catalan, Provençal, etc., related to Brunetto’s and Dante’s rich multicultural mercantile banking and diplomatic ambience and from which Dante and his fellow poets fashioned their dolce stil nuovo, just as we find in coeval ecclesiastical music the heady experimentation of the ars nova, the defiant use of forbidden polyphonia. St Francis had already shaped this rich duality with troubadour lyrics in the vulgar vernacular as contrafactum to the sacred love of the Creation and the Creator, sung in Florence and elsewhere by secular compaignie dei laudesi as at Orsanmichele and Sant’Egidio. In the pairs that follow I shall list some of the music performed by my esteemed colleagues in concerts given in Orsanmichele, Cologne, Graz, Avila, Ravenna and Florence’s Duomo, this last, 8 September 2015, for the celebration of its foundation at the Virgin’s Nativity, 8 September 1296, some seven centuries ago. With the music we also projected manuscript miniatures and other images related to the text in right-brained sensuality, available in the pedagogic DVD to accompany Marco Romanelli's book.
Hell has no music, just musical instruments,
apart from the parodic plagiary of the Templars’ hymn from
Venantius Fortunatus, Vexilla
regis prodeunt inferni (Inferno XXXIV.1) This
snatch of a hymn, perhaps functioning as if a photographic
negative, cacophonically mingled with groans and cries,
contrasts tragically to the ensuing heaven-seeking plainchant,
polyphony and laud.
We first hear voices raised in melodious song, in Purgatorio II.46, in
a work that is no longer an exilic ‘carmen et error’ (Ovid, Tristia 2/II), but
which becomes a Commedia,
a ‘Cantica Canticorum’ of Solomon, that will henceforth be
filled with songs, both sacred and secular. If you listen to
the Hebrew of the Bible on the Web you will find that the Song
of Songs is still sung, not spoken: http://www.mechon-mamre.org/mp3/t3001.mp3
1. Purgatorio II.46-48,112, Psalm 113, ‘In exitu Israel de Aegypto’, ‘tonus peregrinus’|| Casella/Dante, ‘Amor, che ne la mente mi ragiona’ (Convivio III, De vulgari eloquentia II,VI,6, contrafactum, ‘Mariam Matrem Virginem’, Llibre Vermeil de Montserrat, XIV C.).
But, immediately, a backsliding Timothean
duality is presented, Psalm 113’s In exitu Israel de
peregrinus sung in choral unison by a hundredfold
pilgrim souls in Purgatorio
juxtaposed to Dante’s thrice-used lyric,
‘Amor, che ne la mente mi ragiona’, Convivio III, De vulgari eloquentia II,VI, 6, set to music and sung by Casella solo, as a
motet (II.76-120), the sacred Latin translating the sacred
Hebrew now juxtaposed to the Tuscan vernacular, the centuplum monophony
to solo polyphony, the first, Puritanical in its humility,
antiquity and plainness, the second arrogantly seductive and
new-fangled in its evocation of minstrelsy, of songs sung
before the windows of one’s love, an ‘amoroso canto’ (II.107)
– Siena’s State Archive documents fining Casella for so
disturbing the peace of public space with his serenading.
XIX.7-36,73, ‘Io son dolce Sirena’, contrafactum, ‘Co’ la
Madre del Beato’, Laudario
Fiorentino, BNCF, BR 18)|| Psalm 118, ‘Adhesit pavimento anima
Dante has already had Ulysses narrate his ‘suicide-bomb video’ shipwreck speech that had killed himself and all his comrades on the shores of the nuova terra (Inferno XXVI.46-142). Now we encounter the Siren and her song in Purgatorio XIX.7-36, that had earlier so threatened Ulysses’ voyage, and which was also Boethius’ example of the wrongful use of music, in a dream within the dream of the Commedia. 20 Dante’s Paradiso II.1-18 will open explaining that his poem is a pilgrim ship, the manuscript illuminations showing the Jerusalem cross upon its sail, such pilgrim ships setting sail with singing ‘Veni Creator Spiritus’.21
motet to the Siren’s Song is Psalm 118.25 which is barely
heard at all as it is said by souls expiating their avarice by
clinging to the pavement: ‘Adhesit pavimento anima
XIX.73). And which includes the lines, ‘Averte oculos meos ne
videant vanitatem in via tua vivifica me’. In this
second motet or pairing the psalm follows, instead of
preceding the sinning song.
3. Purgatorio XXIII.10,
XXIV.51, Psalm 50, ‘Labia
mea Domine’|| Bonagiunta Orbiciani/Dante ‘Donne che
avete intelletto d’amore’ Vita nova XIX,
contrafactum ‘Imperauritz del ciutat joyosa’, Llibre Vermeil de
Monserrat, XIV C.
In the circle where gluttony is punished we first hear lines from David’s Penitential Psalm 50 on opening one’s lips to proclaim the praise of God, Purgatorio XXIII.10, his Psalm written to expiate his crimes of adultery and murder, then the backsliding into the seduction and celebration of the dolce stil nuovo, where lips are opened in the praise of women, rather than of God, where Bonagiunta da Lucca sings Dante’s Vita nova and dolce stil nuovo lyric of Dante’s composing, ‘Donne che avete intelletto d’amore’, Purgatorio XXIV.51,
Jacopo da Lentini, BNCF, Canzoniere Palatino, Banco Raro 418
then speaks of the Sicilian Notaro Jacopo da Lentini and the
Aretine Guittone as with him.
4. Purgatorio XXV.121, XXVI.140-147, Summae Deus clementiae|| Arnaut Daniel/Dante, ‘Tan m’abellis vostre cortes deman’, contrafactum, Thibaut de Navarre, ‘Dex est ausi comme li pelicans’.
In Purgatorio XXV.121 the souls of the lustful,
Guido Guinizelli, BNCF, Canzoniere Palatino, Banco Raro 418
who include the poet Guido Guinizelli, do not sing a psalm, but instead a hymn
Bibliothèque Nationale, BnF ms. 854 fol. 65
to which the contrafactum becomes
Arnaut Daniel’s Provençal lyric, Purgatorio
XXVI.140-147, in actuality again composed by the virtuoso
Dante, showing off his not inconsiderable skills, and for
which he plagiarizes not Arnaut Daniel but Folquet da
Marsiglia’s and Berenguer de Palou’s ‘Tan m’abellis’. As
author, Dante assumes the masks of many other authors, as poet
that of other poets, purloining from them their poetry
throughout his pages.
5. Purgatorio XXVII.8,
58,100-108, 'Beati mundo corde', Venite, benedicti patris
mei|| ‘Sappia qualunque mio nome dimanda’, contrafactum,
Alfonso el Sabio, ‘Maravillosos miragres’, Cantiga de Santa Maria
272, BNCF BR 14.
XXVII.58 angelic voices are heard singing, announcing
eventide. Then Dante falls asleep and dreams of a singer who
is Lia with Rachel, as a precursor to Matelda with Beatrice,
the active versus the contemplative life (Purgatorio
XXVII.100-108). Apart from the Siren, also heard in a dream,
this is the first woman’s song we hear, Lia/Matelda
functioning as the precursor, like John the Baptist, to
Rachel/Beatrice as Christ. We recall Dante had already played
such a transvestite game in the Vita nova, where
Cavalcanti’s Giovanna is the ‘prima vera’, the herald to
Beatrice. We are
entering the realm of the Blessed, the expiation from sin
being almost fulfilled.
de Libano, sponsa mea, contrafactum, ‘Peccatrice
nominato Magdalena da Dio amata’, Laudario Fiorentino,
BNCF BR 18|| Benedictus
qui venis|| Manibus
o data plena lilias ||In te, Domine, speravi,
contrafactum, ‘Ortorium virentium/Virga Yesse/Victime paschali
Fiorentino, BNCF BR 18, Psalm 31
In Purgatorio XXX the motet, this time, triple, perhaps even quadruple, is entirely in Latin, from the Song of Songs, the Gospel (Luke 19, 38; Matthew 21, 5 and 9) and from Virgil’s Aeneid, the Jewish, the Christian and the pagan Roman, all together (XXX.11,19, 21), followed by Psalm 31 at lines 83-84. We know of Dante’s friendship with Jewish Emmanuel Romano at Verona, likewise a composer of polyphony, and thus that he could also know that the ‘Benedictus qui venis’ sung at Palm Sunday at Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem, comparing him to David, derives from the wedding song sung at a bridegroom’s entry into Synagogue.22 Here we have Beatrice being greeted as if Bathsheba, and the Queen of Sheba, Dante being greeted as if David and as if Solomon, while the Aeneid recalls the lines about the funeral of Marcellus over which his uncle Caesar Augustus wept and Octavia fainted on hearing Virgil chant them in Rome, Aeneid 6/VI.884. It is just possible that this motet is even more complicated, quadruple, and that its burden is Psalm 31. For in the same canto we find the angels singing, ‘In te, Domine, speravi’, until they come to the lines of ‘pedes meos’ (Purgatorio XXX.82-84, Psalm 31,1-8).
7. Paradiso VIII.29/37, Gloria/ Agios, O Theos, Ravenna liturgy|| ‘Voi che’ntendo il terzo ciel movete’ (Convivio II, contrafactum, Marchetto da Padova, Ave regina/Mater innocentiae)
In Paradiso VIII.37, we again meet a gathering of poets, Dante encountering his dead friend Carlo Martello of Anjou, King of Hungary, and brother to Franciscan St Louis of Toulouse, the motet combining ‘Hosanna’, here sung in its Greek form by the Ensemble San Felice, and Dante’s own famous lyric ‘Voi che ‘ntendendo il terzo ciel movete’, sung here by a saintly king, in a conversation that will be followed by discourse of Sordello and Folco (Folchetto) of Marseilles in Paradiso IX. The third sphere is that of Venus and thus evokes the singing of canti amorosi; however, it is also St Paul’s vision in which he was caught up into the third heaven, his conversion from his old Saul self to his new.23 Indeed in Convivio 2/II, first giving this lyric, Dante had written of allegory as the truth hidden beneath a beautiful lie and how Psalm 113 gave both the carnal sense and the allegorical, of the literal history, of the Exodus of Israel from Egypt, but also how the soul freed from sin is made holy and free.
The Commedia has other uses of music apart from these seven motets. Among them the most lovely weaving together of the three and four Graces, the Christian and Pagan Virtues, singing Psalm 78, in Purgatorio XXXIII.1-3, that is so particularly poignant following the Loss of the Jerusalem Kingdom: Deus venerunt gentes. Beatrice’s death in the Vita nova, 8 June 1290, had coincided with the loss of the Jerusalem Kingdom, 28 May 1291, from which Dante poetically constructs the new Jerusalem as a Florence/Rome of penitential pilgrimage. It is a scene which Botticelli will still be echoing in his ‘Primavera’, just as his ‘Birth of Venus’ resurrected the dead Simonetta Vespucci. When I heard this Psalm sung alternatim by the three and the four women’s voices of the Ensemble San Felice in Orsanmichele it was as if we were in the presence of the Music of the Spheres, as if Amphion’s ten-stringed lyre and David’s ten-stringed harp, converted back to Pythagoras’ seven-stringed lyre, were a’building the new Jerusalem, a new Florence, though she was born out of the sorrows of the old, even as a new Thebes over whom Niobe mourned.
Another is where the souls on Purgatorio XI.1-5’s Terrace of Pride sing the Pater noster vulgarized into Italian as a Franciscan canticle, a Franciscan lauda, ‘O Padre nostro, che nei cieli stai . . . laudato sia il tuo nome. . . da ogni creatura’, the mortals’ song mirror-reflecting that of angels chanting Osanna (10-12).24
V. From Seven to Ten
To the classical dictate of the strict limit of seven strings to the lyre, resonating with the seven heavenly spheres, there was, however, the concept that David’s harp had ten strings signifying the Ten Commandments given to man by God, a concept taught to Dante by Brunetto concerning David in the Tesoro.25 In Dante’s Judaeo-Christian culture, David, Moses and God with their ten-stringed harp, their Ten Commandments, trump Pythagoras’s monophonic seven, while condemning Timotheus’ excessive eleven. Timotheus’ name, itself, means that ‘fear of God’ which is the beginning of wisdom (Proverbs 1.7, 9,10, Psalm 111,10).
Who authors the music of Dante’s Commedia? Certainly Dante composes the amorosi canti, initially sung to a woman married to another, Beatrice Portinari, thus aligning these with the Siren’s song of lust. In this he is like another composer of music, the shepherd boy who became King David, who lusted for Bathsheba, and who composed his psalm of penance to God, Psalm 50, which Dante so often intersperses among the pages of the Purgatorio, in Cantos 5, 23, and 31 (V.22-24, XXIII.11, XXXI.29), even disordering its verses doing so, as sin itself is a disordering of the flesh, causing it to shadow and astonish the shades who are souls. In this he is also like David’s sinning son, King Solomon, ‘like father, like son’, who writes the Song of Songs to the Queen of Sheba, the Canticle of Cantos. And – in this vein – he next assumes the masks and voices of his coeval lyric poets who shaped the school of the dolce stil nuovo – with the joke of the much-fined catawauling Casella singing Dante’s own ‘Amor ne la mente mi ragiona’.
But there is another voice, that of St Francis, who turns sacred Latin into Italian troubadour lyrics, but in praise of God, Christ, and Mary. Dante was a Franciscan tertiary and was buried in Francis’ garb at the church of San Francesco in Ravenna. Dante used the form of the Franciscan lauda in Purgatorio XI for the words Christ taught us to pray, the ‘Our Father’, the ‘Padre nostro’.
And he again uses Francis’ form of vernacular sung praise, now to the Virgin Mary, in Paradiso XXXIII, into the mouth of the white-clad Latin-writing Cistercian St Bernard, commentator to Solomon’s Song of Songs,
Filippino, St Bernard, Badia Fiorentina
who should sing Gregorian plainchant, but who
instead sings the magnificent Magnificat paradox, ‘Vergine Madre, figlia del
a Franciscan lauda in Italian, such as were sung by the Florentine laity, by women and children unlearned in Latin, in their compagnia dei laudesi, particularly at Orsanmichele. Nor should we forget that Dante as co-member with Giotto of the Arte dei medici e speziali shared their stemma of the Madonna and Child. Dante is both Timotheus, breaking all the rules, corrupting us, and the follower of Francis, following Christ, the lay singer singing laude to Mary.26
Arnolfo di Cambio, Dormition of the Virgin, Museo Opera del Duomo
This recalls the sculpture placed by Arnolfo di Cambio above the left entrance to Santa Reparata of the Dormition of the Virgin where Christ compassionately carries aloft to heaven the soul of his mother, sculpted with the anatomical boning of a little girl child, the ‘Daughter of her Son’, Wisdom, who plays at God’s side at the Creation of the world (Proverbs 8, 22-36).27 Timotheus/David/Solomon/Paul/Boethius/ Dante have redeemed themselves in redeeming us their readers and hearers. Thus the discordia concors of the Commedia is resolved – humbly and anonymously. Dante here, for once, does not boast proudly of his own exquisite virtuoso composition - which is nowhere found amongst Bernard’s Latin words.
In my 2013 University of Pennsylvania paper, ‘Piccarda: Monasticism and Neuro-Humanities ‘, I had already called for performing Dante and for studying him in a right, rather than left, brain context, with sound and colour, music and image. Right brain constructions are complex, yoke contraries, as in motets, and create antiphonal, symmetric, enveloping, chiastic structures, as in Gothic vaulting; left brain methods are linear and analytical, in architecture making use of simplistic lintel and post boxes, and are overly blunt and superficial when applied to medieval masterworks.
1 Purgatorio II.112; Convivio III; De vulgari eloquentia II.VI.6. Augustine, Confessions IX.x, gives his mystical discourse with his mother at Ostia centring on their arriving at a mutual and global silence. At her death, chapter xi, a psalm is sung. While Dante has Casella disturb the holy island mountain with lecherous song of Dante’s own composing, until Cato breaks its Sirenic spell. Eric McLuhan, Cynic Satire, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015, building on Mihail Bakhtin's study of Dosteivsky, has useful observations that can be related, as well, to Dante, on the polyphonic mixture of styles and voices.
2 Mattias Lundberg, Tonus Peregrinus: The History of a Psalm Tone; Dunstan J. Tucker, O.S.B., ‘ ‘In Exitu Israel de Aegypto’: The Divine Comedy in The Light of the Easter Liturgy’, Benedictine Review 11:1 (1960) 43-61; Robert Hollander, ‘Purgatorio II: Cato's Rebuke and Dante's scoglio,’ Italica 52 (1975) 348-363.
3 Convivio II.I.6; Purgatorio II; Epistola XIII.7.
4 Nicolino Applauso observes that Casella is fined, 13 July 1282, Biccherna 84 c. 1r, Archivio di Stato di Siena: ‘Casella homine curiae quia fuit inventus de nocte post tertium sonum campanae Comunis’, ‘‘S’i fosse foco ardere’ il mondo’: L’esilio e la politica nella poesia di Cecco Angiolieri’, Letteratura Italiana Antica, p. 226.
5 Purgatorio II.120-133. Dante’s teacher Brunetto Latino, had quoted Cato: ‘¶|Cato dice. Jra impedisce l'animo/ke non può giudicare lo uero’ [Tesoro, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana 42.19, fol. 53vb]. Here Dante, jokingly, has Cato exhibit the rage he had spoken against, fulfilling Brunetto’s further statement concerning both Cato and Augustine: ‘|Cato disse/ciò che tu biasimi/ti guarda di fare. che laida cosa è/quando la colpa cade sopra lui. ¶|Agustino dice. Bene dire. e male operare/non è altro/che se con sua boce dannare’ [Tesoro, 54ra].
6 British Library Additional 19587, folio 62; Julia Bolton Holloway, The Pilgrim and the Book: A Study of Dante, Langland and Chaucer, pp. 145-162, Plate Xa.
7 British Library, Harley 978, folio 11v; Fernand Mossé, Handbook of Middle English, Plate II, pp. 201-202, 369; Yvonne Rokseth, Polyphonies du XIIIe siècle: Le manuscript H 196 de la faculté de médicine de Montpellier, 4 vols, passim.
8 Mikhail Bakhtin, Rabelais and His World; Michael Camille, The Gothic Idol, passim. Dante Alighieri’s teacher, Brunetto Latino, himself a composer of a Francescian lauda and cognisant of Gallegos and Provençal lyrics, expounded this dialectic in his Tesoro, saying ‘This book teaches that to learn virtue one must also study vice, in order to follow one and eschew the other, Aristotle saying that the same teaching is through two such contraries’ ‘|Che due cose contrarie quando sono insieme/l'una contra l'altra. elle sono più cognoscenti’ [Tesoro, 6ra], and ‘I|N questo libro ci ae mostrato el mastro L’insegnamenti de le uirtù e de uitij. L’uno per operare. e l’altro per schifare. che questa e la cagione per che l’uomo de sapere bene e male. |Et tutto chello libro parli più de le uirtù ke de uitij. non pertanto la oue lo bene sia comandato a farlo. secondo che aristotile dice. |Vno medesimo insegnamento è in due contrarie cose [Tesoro, 72ra].
9 Boethius, De Institutione musica. Once I called up a manuscript of the De Musica in Verona’s Biblioteca Capitolare to find its complex visual images of these harmonies gloriously colour-coded. Alongside manuscripts of Dante’s Vita nova and those of Provençal lyrics, from which Ezra Pound’s appunti fell to the floor. Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius leaves that Pythagorean work, the De Musica, unfinished, being imprisoned in exile in Pavia in 523, awaiting his 524 execution, upon which he subsumes all its theory into the game Philosophia and he play of the wrong and right uses of music, the wrong being the lecherous music of the whores of the theatre, the canti amorosi, into which Boethius’ ‘selfie’ has plunged and wallowing in self-pity, and the right use of music being Philosophia’s which balances and heals his soul to heavenly harmonies; though she seems to him at first to be a punishing Moses, a condemning Cato. She is his soul, his better half, calling him back to reason and to wisdom, instead of to the Sirens’ lust and Circe’s lethargy.
10 Domenico Comparetti, Virgilio nel Medio Evo, passim.
11 Francesco Ciabattoni, Dante’s Journey to Polyphony, pp. 48-66. Dante’s Hell is replete with musical instruments, particularly those connected with war violence, trumpets, bells, drums, bagpipes (Inferno XXII.7-10), and also to the obscene shape of the new-fangled Saracenic lute forced to sound like a drum (XXX.49,103), most of the other references being to the Apocalyptic Trump of Doomsday, a list reminding one of Bosch’s scenes of Hell.
12 Medieval Commedia commentaries and Leonardo Bruni’s Vita e costume di Dante note that Brunetto Latino was Dante’s teacher, that he became the orphan boy’s guardian, and that Dante’s fellow students with him were Guido Cavalcanti and Francesco da Barberino. We know from the archives in Fiesole that Brunetto’s father and brother were notarii to the Diocesan Bishops, including Filippo da Perusgia, the Franciscan who journeyed to Constantinople in 1279, and that traditionally notaries trained their sons in this skill, preserving, doing so, classical learning. Vittorio Imbriani, 'Dimostrazione che Brunetto Latini non fu maestro di Dante', Giornale napoletano di filosofia e lettere. A VII (1878). 1-24, 169, 198; rpt. as 'Che Brunetto Latini non fu maestro di Dante', StD, 1891, pp. 335-80. Francesco Novati, Le Epistole. Conferenza letta da Francesco Novati nella Sala di Dante in Orsanmichele, 1905, pp. 7-14; 'Il Notaio nella vita e nella letteratura italiana delle origini', Freschi e minii del Dugento, 1925, pp. 243-64, 269-76; challenges Imbriani by demonstrating Brunetto educated Dante.
13 In 1260, at the time of Montaperti’s Battle, Brunetto as the youthful Chancellor of Florence, had been sent on embassy to Alfonso el Sabio in Seville. There he also encountered Arabic learning, which preserved Greek learning largely lost to the West. Sentence of exile being proclaimed against his family, Brunetto next journeyed to Montpellier and Arras and earned his keep as notary of Florence’s Guelf government in exile, while at the same time producing his Tesoretto, dedicated to Alfonso el Sabio, and Li Livres dou Tresor, dedicated to Charles of Anjou. In the latter he plays the role of Aristotle who teaches a Charles of Anjou in the role of joking Alexander. In this text he also consciously quarries Boethius’ pedagogy. *On his return from exile in Florence, Brunetto oversaw the production of the Tesoro in Florentine Italian by his students, one manuscript of which is written and copiously illustrated by Francesco da Barberino (Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, 42.19, and which even portrays Brunetto with his students, one of them Dante with the Tesoro in his lap. Only one Li Livres dou tresor manuscript exists in Florence, while a plethora of the Tesoretto and the Tesoro manuscripts do so in Italian. It is clear that this was Dante’s version, his education. Julia Bolton Holloway, Twice-Told Tales: Brunetto Latino and Dante Alighieri, passim.
14 Brunetto’s manuscripts often also contain Provençal lyrics, he exchanges a Tresor, now in the Escorial, for Alfonso el Sabio’s Las Cantigas de Santa Maria given to Florence, and he himself writes a Franciscan lauda for a Florentine compagnia dei laudesi. Provençal poems in Brunetto Latino MSS: Li Livres dou Tresor: Torino, Biblioteca Nazionale, L.II.18; Fiore di filosofi e di molti savi, Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, Conv. Soppr. F.4.766. Li Livres dou Tresor, Madrid, Escorial L.II.3; Alfonso el Sabio, Las Cantigas de Santa Maria, Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, Banco Rari 20. ‘Maestro latino’, Lauda, in Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, Palatino 168, fols. 34v-37r, Twice-Told Tales, pp. 504-509.
15 Boccaccio, Trattattello in lauda di Dante Alighieri, ‘Sommamente si dilettò in suoni e in canti nella sua giovanezza, e a ciascuno che a que’ tempi era ottimo cantatore o sonatore fu amico e ebbe sua usanza; e assai cose, da questo diletto tirato compose, le quali di piacevole e maestrevole nota a questi cotali facea rivestire’.
16 Il Canzoniere Palatino: Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, Banco Rari 217, ex Palatino 418, ed. Lino Leonardi.
17 Dante Alighieri, De vulgari eloquentia II.
18 Leonardo Bruni Aretino, Vita e costume di Dante, ‘Cominciossi a dire in rima, secondo scrive Dante, innanzi a lui circa anni centocinquanta; e furono i principi in Italia Guido Guinizzelli bolognese, e Guittone cavaliere Gaudente d'Arezzo, e Bonagiunta da Lucca, e Guido da Messina, i quali tutti Dante di gran lunga soverchiò di sentenze, e di politezza, e d'eleganza, e di leggiadria in tanto, che è opinione di chi intende, che non sarà mai uomo che Dante vantaggi in dire in rima.’
19 We remember medieval, Renaissance and modern jokes, Chaucer’s Miller and his bagpipes leading Chaucer’s bawdry to Canterbury, Shakespeare’s Winter’s Tale lone Puritan who ‘sings psalms to horn-pipes’, and Hardy’s Far from the Madding Crowd’s ‘And ‘a can play the peanner, so ‘tis said. Can play so clever that ‘a can make a psalm tune sound as well as the merriest loose song a man can wish for’: Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales, ‘A baggepipe wel koude he blowe and sowne/And therewithal he brought us oute of toune’, The Riverside Chaucer, ed. Larry D. Benson, General Prologue, lines 565-566, p. 32; William Shakespeare, The Winter’s Tale, IV.iii.40.50, ’but one puritan amongst them, and he sings psalms to hornpipes’, The Complete Works of Shakespeare, ed. Hardin Craig and David Bevington, p. 1233; Thomas Hardy, Far from the Madding Crowd, pp. 92-93.
20 Ernest Jones in a footnote to his Hamlet and Oedipus states that the play within the play, like the dream within the dream, is that which the dreamer wishes were not so but which is, p. 99. In questing manuscripts of St Birgitta of Sweden in her double monasteries throughout Europe I came across one in Munich written for Brigittine monks on the problem of ‘wet dreams’ and could not help smiling remembering when I taught for Franciscans in Quincy, of a novice and his water bed, pinning outside his Friary door a cartoon of a customer returning his water mattress saying to the salesman, ‘It gives me wet dreams’! Again I recall a story, of a seminary student in Milan tasting the fruit of his first prostitute, being told by his rector, ‘Amato, no fruit for a week. You have had enough of it.’
21 Julia Bolton Holloway, The Pilgrim and the Book, ‘Veni Creator Spiritus’, pp. 73, 83-84.
22 Immanuello Romano, L’Inferno e Il Paradiso, ed. Giorgio Battistoni; Giorgio Battistoni, Verona, ‘Il Libro della Scala, Dante Alighieri, La Commedia, e Immanuello Romano, L'Inferno e il Paradiso’, The City and the Book International Conference II, The Manuscript, The Illumination, Accademia delle Arte del Disegno, Via Orsanmichele 4, Florence, 4-7 September 2002, http://www.florin.ms/beth3.html
23 Paul, ‘Boasting is necessary, though it is not profitable; but I will go on to visions and revelations of the Lord. I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago-- whether in the body I do not know, or out of the body I do not know, God knows-- such a man was caught up to the third heaven. And I know how such a man-- whether in the body or apart from the body I do not know, God knows—‘, 2 Corinthians 12. 1-3.
24 Andrea Della Robbia’s Santa Croce
sculpture shaped from Adam’s clay but glazed with sky blue, of
Jesus, as God-Man, praying this prayer to God: I Della Robbia e l’arte
nuova’ della scultura invetriata, ed., Giancarlo
Gentilini, pp. 202-203.
Andrea Della Robbia, ‘Padre nostro’, Santa Croce
25 ‘|Ma dauid profetoe fuori di queste iiij. maniere |Che egli profetoe per somma interpretatione di dio. e di sancto spirito. ke'l insegno dire/tutta la natiuitade di xpo. Che elli scoprio quello/ke li altri profeti aueuano detto copertamente. secondo l'uomo puote uedere nel suo libro. ke appellato salterio. in sembiança d'uno stormento/chiamato altressi saltero. lo quale a. x. uoci. che significano. x. Comandamenti de la legge. che dio die a moyse. El saltero ne parla molto di ciò. in .Cl. salmi che vi sono’ [Tesoro, fol. 12vb].
26 Marco Grimaldi, ‘L’incredultià di Guido Cavalcanti’, «Filologia e Critica», a. XXXVIII 2013, pp. 3-32. Brunetto Latino, who himself wrote a magnificent lauda to the Virgin, says in the Tesoro:
Et sappiate che la nostra donna moriò al secolo corporalmente. e portarolla li apostoli a seppelire ne la valle di iosaphat. faciendo si grandi canti li angeli in cielo ke non si potrebe ne dire ne contare. |Et quel canto udirono li apostoli. e molti altri per l'uniuerso mondo. |Ma poi chella fu seppellita. al terço dì li apostoli non ui trouaro el corpo suo. |Onde douemo credere che domenedio la resuscito. et è collui ne la gloria di paradiso [Tesoro, fol. 15rb].
27 Arnolfo alle origini del Rinascimento fiorentino, ed., Enrica Neri Lusanna, pp. 260-261.
Alfonso el Sabio. Las Cantigas de Santa Maria. Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, Banco Rari 20.
Benvenuto da Imola, Commentary to Dante Alighieri, Commedia, Imola, 32.
Brunetto Latino. Il Tesoretto. Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Strozzi 146.
Brunetto Latino. Il Tesoro. Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, 42.19.
‘Maestro latino’. Lauda. Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, Palatino 168, fols. 34v-37r.
Il Canzoniere Palatino. Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, Banco Rari 217, ex-Palatino 418.
Dante Alighieri, Commedia. British Library, Additional 19587, fol. 62 r.
Dante Alighieri, Commedia. Imola, Biblioteca Comunale, 32, fol. 7r.
Laudario Fiorentino, Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, Banco Rari 18
Monserrat, ‘Mariam Matrem Virginem’, Llibre Vermeil de Montserrat
Montpellier H 196, fols. 270r-377r. http://manuscrits.biu-montpellier.fr/vignettem.php?GENRE=MP&ETG=OR&ETT=OR&ETM=OR&BASE=manuf
‘Sumer is icumen in’. London, British Museum, Harley 978, fol. 11v. http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?ref=Harley_MS_978
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Dante Alighieri. La divina commedia nella figurazione artistica e nel secolare commento. A cura di Guido Biagi, Giuseppe Lando Passerini, Enrico Rostagno & Umberto Cosmo. 3 vols. Torino: UTET, 1924-39.
Dante Alighieri. La Divina Commedia. Illustrazioni di Sandro Botticelli. Firenze: Le Lettere, 1997.
Vittorio Alinari. Paesaggi italici nella 'Divina Commedia'. Firenze: Presso Giorgio e Piero Alinari, 1921.
Beniamino Andriani. La Musica della Divina Commedia. http://www.culturaservizi.it/vrd/files/ZG1966_musica_Divina_Commedia.pdf
Gilberto Aranci. Il Laudario fiorentino del trecento. Montespertoli: Aleph, 2002.
Erminia Ardissino. ‘I Canti liturgici nel Purgatorio dantesco’. Dante Studies, 108 (1990), 39-65.
Arnolfo alle origini del Rinascimento fiorentino. Ed. Enrica Neri Lusanna. Firenze: Polistampa, 2005.
Augustine. Confessions. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1977. Loeb Classics 16-17.
M.M Bakhtin. Rabelais and His World. Trans. Hélène Iswolsky. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius. De Institutione musica. Leipzig: Teubner, 1867.
Julia Bolton Holloway, Federico Bardazzi, Marco di Manno. La Musica della Commedia. Firenze: Ensemble San Felice, 2015. DVD of music performed, Ravenna, 14 June, Florence, Duomo, 8 September, 2015, and elsewhere.
Julia Bolton Holloway. ‘The Asse to the Harpe: Boethian Music in Chaucer’. Tales within Tales: Apuleius through Time. Ed. Cosntance S. Wright, Julia Bolton Holloway. New York: AMS Press, 2000. Pp. 73-91.
Julia Bolton Holloway. The Pilgrim and the Book: A Study of Dante, Langland and Chaucer. Berne: Peter Lang, 1992.
Julia Bolton Holloway. Twice Told Tales: Brunetto Latino and Dante Alighieri. Berne: Peter Lang, 1993.
Peter Brieger, Millard Meiss, Charles S. Singleton. Illuminated Manuscripts of the Divine Comedy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969. 2 vols.
Michael Camille. The Gothic Idol: Ideology and Image-Making in the Medieval Art. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Il Canzoniere Palatino: Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, Banco Rari 217, ex Palatino 418. A cura di Lino Leonardi. Firenze: SISMEL Edizioni del Galluzzo, 2000.
Geoffrey Chaucer. The Riverside Chaucer. Ed. Larry D. Benson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987.
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Francesco Ciabattoni. Dante’s Journey to Polyphony. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010.
Fletcher Collins. The Production of Medieval Church Music-Drama. Charlottesville, 1972.
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Domenico Comparetti, Virgilio nel Medio Evo. Florence: La Nuova Italia, 1941.
Edmond de Coussemaker. Drames liturgiques du Moyen Age, texte et musique. Rennes: Vatard, 1860.
Raffaele De Benedictis. Ordine e struttura musicale nella Divina Commedia. Florence: European Press Academic Publishing, 2000.
I Della Robbia e l’arte nuova’ della scultura invetriata. Ed., Giancarlo Gentilini. Fiesole, Basilica di Sant’Alessandro, 29 maggio-1 novembre 1998. Firenze: Giunti, 1998.
Marco Grimaldi. ‘L’incredulità di Guido Cavalcanti’. Academia.edu
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Vittorio Imbriani. 'Dimostrazione che BL non fu maestro di Dante'. Giornale napoletano di filosofia e lettere. A VII (1878). 1-24, 169, 198. Rpt. as 'Che BL non fu maestro di Dante'. StD. Florence: Sansoni, 1891. Pp. 335-80.
Ernest Jones. Hamlet and Oedipus. Garden City: Doubleday, 1955.
Mattias Lundberg. Tonus Peregrinus: The History of a Psalm Tone. Farnham: Ashgate, 2011.
Jacopo Mazzei. ‘Trovatori e lirica profana nella Divina Commedia’ Tesi di laurea, Università di Bologna, 2006-7.
Fernand Mossé. Handbook of Middle English. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1952.
Francesco Novati. 'Il Notaio nella vita e nella letteratura italiana delle origini'. In Freschi e minii del Dugento. Milano: Cogliati, 1925. Pp. 243-64.
Le Epistole. Conferenza letta da Francesco Novati nella Sala di Dante in Orsanmichele. Firenze: Sansoni, 1905. Lectura Dantis.
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Crowd. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1985.
Judith Peraino. Giving Voice to Love: Song and Self-Expression from the Troubadours to Guillaume de Machaut. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Yvonne Rokseth. Polyphonies du XIIIe siècle: Le manuscript H 196 de la faculté de médicine de Montpellier. Paris: Oiseau Lyre, 1936-1939. 4 vols.
Marco Romanelli. Cantando come donna innamorata: Dante e la musica. Con DVD La Musica della Commedia, Ensemble San Felice, Federico Bardazzi. Roma: Editrice Dante Alighieri, 2016.
Immanuello Romano. L’Inferno e Il Paradiso. Ed. Giorgio Battistoni. Firenze: Giuntina, 2000
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Leo Spitzer. Classical and Christian Ideas of World Harmony. Prolegomena to an Interpretation of the Word ‘Stimmung’. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1963.
Mimi Stillman, ‘The Music of Dante’s Purgatorio’. Hortulus: The Online Graduate Journal of Medieval Studies Vol. 1, No. 1, 2005 http://hortulus.net/journal/20052Stillman.pdf
Sacre rappresentazioni nel manoscritto 201 della Bibliothèque Municipale di Orléans. A cura di Giampiero Tintori. Cremona, 1958.
Dunstan J. Tucker, O.S.B., ‘ ‘In Exitu Israel de Aegypto’: The Divine Comedy in The Light of the Easter Liturgy’. Benedictine Review 11:1 (1960) 43-61
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'Dante vivo', 1997-2016 © Julia Bolton Holloway, Carlo Poli, Società Dantesca Italiana, Federico Bardazzi, Ensemble San Felice