Florence's English Cemetery and its Dante Scholars App © Julia Bolton Holloway Event, Academia Bessarion Zoom Discussion in English, 6 April 2021, Ceremony in Italian, because Tuscany was in Covid Zona Rossa, postponed to 6 May 2021, at noon, English Cemetery in Florence


Adolfo Mussafia || Elena Comparetti || Varvara Kudrjavceva || Robert Davidsohn || Hiram Powers || Frances Trollope || Walter Savage Landor || Joseph Garrow || Elizabeth Barrett Browning || 

The Victorian Cemetery was built by the Fiesolan Gate, the Porta a' Pinti, through which Dante and Beatrice would have gone as children in the summer to the countryside near Sasso beyond Fiesole. Amalia Ciardi DuPrè, descendant of Giovanni DuPrè, and relative of his daughter, Amalia DuPrè, the great nineteenth-century Florentine sculptors, created this bozza for the empty niche in our wall, built when the Gate was destroyed by Giuseppe Poggi:

Many international scholars enamoured of Dante came to Florence and several found their resting place here in the so-called 'English' Cemetery, owned by the Swiss. This is a guided tour to their tombs to be honoured with laurel wreathes and with carrying their books to their tombs in a celebration 6 April 2021, when the Florentine wild purple irises, her lily, are in bloom.

In Sector C is the tomb of Adolfo Mussafia, the scholar from Trieste, then part of Austria, of Dante Alighieri's teacher, Brunetto Latino, whose work editing the Tesoro I have also used extensively:


Adolfo Mussafia, from a Jewish family in Trieste, Professor in Vienna, was a great scholar of Dante and his teacher, Brunetto Latino, and for this chose to be buried in Florence rather than under Austrian hegemony, his wife arranging for her ashes from Vienna to be buried with his in death and his papers given to the University of Florence. It is most appropriate that he and Robert Davidsohn now lie so close to each other. He has an entry in Wikipedia. His descendant, Professor Leopoldo Stefanulti, who looks exactly like the medallion portrait of Adolfo Mussafia on his tomb, arranged for its repair and cleaning by Daniel-Claudiu Dumitrescu. This is one among several tombs with a portrait medallion:
A64/ GEORGE AUGUSTUS WALLIS by Aristodemos Costoli, A15/ ANNE SUSANNA (LLOYD) HORNER by Francesco Jerace; AB7/ INA BOSS SAULTER, by Ettore Ximenes; B4/ ELENA NIKITICNA DIK, NATA AKZYNOVA by Fyodor Fyodorovitsch Kamensky; C3/ THOMAS SOUTHWOOD SMITH by Joel T. Hart; C27/ Adolfo Mussafia; D108/ THEODORE PARKER by William Wetmore Story; D127/ JAMES ROBERTS, by Joel T. Hart?; E12/ JAMES LORIMER GRAHAM, JR by Launt Thompson; E9/ WALTER KENNEDY LAWRIE by Pietro Bazzanti, F27/ PHILIPPINA (SIMONS) CIAMPI, by Joel T. Hart?)


Sarcofago. Marmista ignoto. Sec. XX, post 6/1905// 3/1915. Ambito toscano. Sarcofago in marmo bianco scolpito, tondo con la sua effige (apice naso mancante o eroso) posto su quattro colonne in marmo grigio e lastra in marmo bianco (piccole parti distaccate), sul fronte e tergo e sui due fianchi laterali ghirlande e festoni, recinto in pietra serena. Possibile intervento di consolidamento e pulitura sul marmo (richiesta da parte di un discendente.  [M: A: 72; L: 91.8; P: 52.5; A Colonne: A: 119.5; Circum: 49; L/P: 24.5; M Base: 17.6; L: 123.3; P: 82; RP.s.: A: 43.5; L/P: 201.]/ Iscrizione sepolcrale incisa in lettere capitali e numeri arabi e romani: ADOLFO MUSSAFIA/ N. A SPALATO, IL 15 FEBBRAIO 1834/ M. A FIRENZE IL 7 GIUGNO 1905 / LA MOGLIE INCONSOLATA/ REGINA MUSSAFIA/ AUSTRIA/ DELLA VEDOVA REGINA MVSSAFIA MORTA A VIENNA IL XV/ MARZO M.D.CCCC.XV. QVI PER SVO VOLERE FVRONO DEPOSTE LE CENERI IL SUSSEGVENTE XI APRILE/ 2011/ Belle Arti 1993-1997 scheda/°=Leopoldo Stefanulti. Chiesa Evangelica Riformata Svizzera, 1827-present.
See Mediatheca 'Fioretta Mazzei' holdings, TAU & PE

Also in Sector C we find the tomb of the wife of Domenico Comparetti, who wrote on Virgil in the Middle Ages, she, Russian Jewish, married to this great Catholic Italian Dante scholar:


She married, unhappily, Domenico Comparetti, the great Catholic medievalist. Mikhail Talalay notes that she was a feminist and educator, daughter of the banker Lev Anisimovic Rafalovic, her mother a Polyakov, and that Samojlovna, the wife of her uncle Rafalovic Ljubov', is buried in the Allori Cemetery. Bibl.: Storia di Elena, a cura di E. Frontali Montali, Torino, La Rosa, 1980; M.A. Manacorda, 'La breve illusione pedagogica di Elena Comparetti' in L'educazione delle donne: Scuola e modello di vita femminile nell'Italia dell'800, a cura di S. Soldoni, Milano, Angeli, 1989. She is of the family of Don Lorenzo Milani Comparetti, likewise an educator.


Lastra. Marmista ignoto. Sec. XX, post 1918. Ambito toscano. Lastra in marmo, con lettere romane in ottone [M: A: 18; L: 60; P: 80.] Iscrizione sepolcrale in italiano in lettere capitali e numeri arabi in piombo: ELENA COMPARETTI/ RAFFALOVICH/ ODESSA 1842/ FIRENZE 1918/ [Comparetti/ Elena/ /Italia/ Firenze/ 29 Novembre/ 1918/ / 760 Later Hand]/ [Wife to prof. Domenico Comparetti] Talalay: Odessa 1842-1918; femminista, pedagoga, figlia del banchiere Lev Anisimovic Rafalovic e di Elena Jakovlevna Poljakova, moglie del filologo pisano Domenico Comparetti; nel Cimitero 'Agli Allori' si trova la tomba della moglie dello zio Rafalovic Ljubov' Samojlovna/1825-1883, HII11/ °=Valeria Milani Comparetti. Chiesa Evangelica Riformata Svizzera, 1827-present.
Компаретти, урожд. Рафалович, Елена Львовна, Одесса 1842 — Флоренция 1918, D28L [педагог].
Mediatheca 'Fioretta Mazzei' holdings, TAU & PE

Also in Sector D, in the Russian Row, we find the tomb of the wife of Professor Petr Nikolaevic Kudrjacev:


The widowed Professor Kudrjacev laments the death of his wife, speaking of himself as 'orphaned' in reference to the sculpture on the tomb of the dead Mercadanti mother and her orphaned son MARIA MERCADANTI, D52, GAUDENZIO MERCADANTI, D50. A scholar, he studied Dante.


Urna su colonna. Marmista  ignoto. Sec. XIX, post 4/1866. Ambito toscano. Pilastro in marmo sormontato da un'urna, recinto in pietra serena. Possibile intervento di pulitura. [M: A: 167; L: 40.5; P: 40.5; P.s. A: 55; L: 64; P: 64; RPs: A: 68; L: 113;  P: 197.] L'epitaffio fa riferimento alla scultura dell'orfano sulla tomba di Maria Mercadanti. Kudrjavceva, nata Nelidova, Varvara Arsen'evna. Eglise Evangelique-Reformée de Florence Régistre des Morts: Bardera Kudrawzow, femme de Pierre Kudrawzow, Moscou, Empire Russe/ I: 1852-1859 'Registre des Sepultures avec detail des frais, Paoli 640/ Q257: 175 Paoli/ Talalay: 6.2.1826 - 17(5).3.1857; 'moglie professore università di Mosca' (Petr Nikolaevic Kudrjavcev, noto storico, italianista (1816-1858), MKF; N° 609, RC; Epitaffo: nikto ne prinosil/ stol'ko scast'ja/ kak ona i tomu, kto znal/ i poterjal ee nikogda/ ne izbyt' gor'kogo sirostava/ Nessuno ha dato tanta felicità quanto lei e chi l'ha conosciuta e perduta sarà sempre amaramente orfano (epitaffio composto probabilmente dallo stesso professor Kudrjavcev rimasto vedovo)/ Kudranzow/ Bardera [sic]/ / Russia/ Firenze/ 17 Marzo/ 1857/ Anni 30/ 609. Chiesa Evangelica Riformata Svizzera, 1827-present.
See City and Book III: gimel.html.
Кудрявцева, урожд. Нелидова, Варвара Арсеньевна, 6.2.1826 — Флоренция 17(5).3.1857, № 609, D25P [«жена профессора Московского университета» <П.Н. Кудрявцева>, МКФ], никто не приносил столько счастья как она и тому, кто знал и потерял ее никогда не избыть горького сиротства.

At the top of the Cemetery, in Sector C, along the path from the King of Prussia's Cross, is the tomb of Robert Davidsohn.


Robert Davidsohn was the great historian of medieval Florence, who had come from Gdansk and spent a lifetime working in archives, compiling volume after meticulous volume in German to be translated into Italian. When he died in 1937 it was too dangerous to be known as Jewish. But now admirers place stones on his tomb in the Jewish custom. His wife, an opera singer, lived to be 100. I used his volumes in writing my Twice-Told Tales: Brunetto Latino and Dante Alighieri, finding that every archival reference he made was true.


Lastra. Marmista ignoto. Sec. XX, post 9/1937// 1947. Ambito toscano. Lastra in marmo, marmo sporco, rialzata su basamento in granito lucido. Intervento di pulitura e sostituzione lettere in piombo mancanti, Daniel-Claudiu Dumitrescu, 2010. [M: A: 7; L: 68; P: 188.5 ; P.s.: A: 14.5; L: 89; P: 200.] 2024/ Iscrizione sepolcrale in lettere capitali e numeri arabi in piombo: PHILIPPINE COLLOT/ VED. DAVIDSOHN/ 1847-1947/ 2024/ ROBERT DAVIDSOHN/ GERMANIA/ COMM. DOTT. PROF./ ROBERT DAVIDSOHN/ 26.4.1853-17.9.1937/ 2024/ °=Prof. Tim A. Osswald, University of Wisconsin Madison/ Belle Arti 1993-1997 scheda. Chiesa Evangelica Riformata Svizzera, 1827-present.
See Mediatheca 'Fioretta Mazzei' holdings, TAU & PE


Pastore Luigi Santini: 'Hiram Powers (1805-1873), an American, came to Florence in 1837 to study and work, and settled in Via Serragli, the artists' street of the day, with his wife and two children. He earned an international reputation for his statuary, for which he liked to choose the marble and supervise its quarrying himself, and he received considerable acclaim for the busts he did of several presidents of the United States. The cemetery also contains evidence of his grief: James (+1838), Frances (+1857) and Florence (+1857), his children, who died at five, eight and seventeen years of age in this their adopted land (E56)'. Frederic Leighton studied at Florence's Accademia di Belle Arti; Hiram Powers was a professor of sculpture there. B8/ ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING, who wrote of his American Indian eyes, writes an impassioned sonnet to his 'Greek Slave', which was exhibited at the centre of the 1851 Crystal Palace Exhibition, in which she draws the analogy also to American enslavement of Africans, Russian enslavement of serfs. This book's title uses a line from the poem on the statue. Hiram Powers' 'The Last of Her Tribe', shows a Native American woman fleeing her captors. Every detail is observed down to the delicate sewing of the mocassins. The theme repeats that of 'The Greek Slave', a woman representing freedom against male oppressors. Hiram Powers' statue of America is more truly American and more beautiful than the Statue of Liberty, the gift of France, but was rejected by Congress before the Civil War because she tramples on slave chains. It burned in a warehouse fire. This plaster cast was discovered in his Florentine studio in 1966, along with many others, which were purchased by museums in Washington, D.C. Among Powers' other works is the head of the Princess Matilde Buonaparte Demidoff. Hiram Powers' sculpture career had begun with his modelling Dante's Commedia in wax in Cincinatti, Ohio, for B80/ FRANCES (MILTON) TROLLOPE. Near Hiram Powers' tomb is that of B58/ KALIMA NADEZHDA DE SANTIS, a black Nubian slave baptized Orthodox (Nadezhda' meaning 'Hope'), who died in Florence in freedom. A similar story is manifested with F53/ HENRIETTA MARIA HAY, whose Greek mother's freedom was purchased by the Scots Egyptologist, Robert Hay, in the slave market of Alexandria, and whom he married on Malta in 1828. Margaret Fuller's death, along with her husband and baby in the shipwreck of the Elizabeth off Fire Island was partly caused by the colossal statue by Hiram Powers in its hold. Sophia Hawthorne describes Hiram Powers movingly in her diary. Nathanael Hawthorne observed him and his studio for the writing of The Marble Faun. He acted as an unpaid American Consul, for which see James Lorimer Graham, Consular Records. The tombs of B42/ ISABELLA BLAGDEN, B98/ MAJOR FRANCIS CHARLES GREGORIE, B99/ REVD GEORGE BRICKDALE CROSSMAN, B32/ HIRAM POWERS, B103/ ELEANOR AUGUSTA TULK, B131/ HONOURABLE FRANCES TOLLEY, as spiritualists and Swedenborgians, are all clustered together near that of Nadezhda, the Nubian/Russian former slave. Powers' son, Preston, also became a sculptor (B37), while another son, Longworth, became a photographer. Hiram Powers' wife, Elizabeth Gibson Powers, and other children, Nicholas Longworth Powers, Louisa Greenough Powers, Georgiana Rose Powers, and William Preston Powers are all buried in the Allori Cemetery, the remains of Preston (who sculpted Lily Nye's tomb) now lying in their Ossario Comune.


Contemporary Photograph in the Diary of Susan Horner, 1861-1862. See entries for Horner and Zileri family members.


WhiteSilence Elizabeth Barrett Browning, 'Hiram Powers' Greek Slave' 1850

They say Ideal Beauty cannot enter
The house of anguish. On the threshold stands
An alien Image with the shackled hands,
Called the Greek Slave: as if the sculptor meant her,
(That passionless perfection which he lent her,
Shadowed, not darkened, where the sill expands)
To, so, confront men’s crimes in different lands,
With man’s ideal sense. Pierce to the centre,
Art’s fiery finger! - and break up erelong
The serfdom of this world!  Appeal, fair stone,
From God’s pure heights of beauty, against man’s wrong!
Catch up in thy divine face, not alone
East griefs but west, - and strike and shame the strong,
By thunders of white silence, overthrown!
Si dice che la Bellezza Ideale non possa introdursi nella
casa d'angoscia. Sulla soglia una Figura straniera stante, con le mani
incatenate, detta la Schiava Greca: come se lo scultore designasse così lei,
(Quella perfezione impassibile che egli le diede,
ombreggiata, non oscurata, ove la soglia si espande)
per testimoniare i crimini degli uomini in differenti lidi

Con il senso ideale dell'uomo. Penetra nell'intimo,
infuocato dito dell'arte! - e spezza presto
la schiavitù di questo mondo! Appellati, bella pietra,
dalle pure sommità della bellezza di Dio, contro il male dell'uomo!
Cattura nel tuo volto divino, non soltanto
le pene orientali ma anche occidentali, - e colpisci e umilia i forti,
da tuoni di bianco silenzio sconfitti!

Tomba. Scultore, Preston Powers: Sec. XIX, post 1873. Sec. XIX, post 6/1873. Ambito toscano. Tomba in marmo, tomba semplice e imponente, marmo sporco, poggiante su basamento in pietra serena, recinto in pietra serena e ferro. Intervento conservativo sul ferro Daniel Dumitrescu, 2008. Possibile intervento di pulitura. [M: A: 35. L: 163.5 P: 104.5; P.s. A: 21. L: 155. P: 96. Recinto: A: 91. L: 261. P: 202.] Iscrizione sepolcrale in lingua inglese in lettere capitali e numeri arabi in piombo: HIRAM POWERS/ DIED JUNE 27TH 1873/ AGED 68/ Eglise Evangelique-Reformée de Florence Régistre des Morts: F. Hiram Powers, America, Sculpteur, fils de Etienne Powers/ IV: 1871-1875 'Registre des Sepultures' avec detail des frais, Francs 550, A/ Registro alfabetico delle persone tumulate nel Cimitero di Pinti: Powers/ Franco [later corrected to Hiram]/ Stefano/ America/ Firenze/ 27 Giugno/ 1873/ Anni 69/ 1220/ N&Q 184. Hiram Powers, ob. 27 June, 1873, a. 68/ Belle Arti 1993-1997 scheda/°=Niccolò, Alessio Michahelles, descendants. Chiesa Evangelica Riformata Svizzera, 1827-present. See Katherine Gaja, gimelc.html#gaja, Roger Crum, Melissa Debakis, CBVb.html, See Mediatheca 'Fioretta Mazzei' holdings, Giuliana Artom Treves, Golden Ring, passim., TAU.

B11E/ B80/ 849/
I noted in 'Iron Chain, Gold Ring': On 28 December 1827, the ship 'Edward' had set sail from the Port of London for the Port of New Orleans. On board were Frances Trollope, 40, Cecilia Trollope, 12, Emily Trollope, 10, Henry Trollope, 14, all English, Frances Wright, 28, American, and August Hervieu, 23, French. Frances Wright, associated with Lafayette, had invited the Trollopes to Nashoba where she had a settlement for the education of Negro slaves. Auguste Hervieu, a brilliant young artist, was the children's tutor and companion. With them also were Hester Rust and William Abbott, their servants. Often Hervieu had to sell his art to feed and house them all'. In Cincinatti she had engaged the young B32/ HIRAM POWERS to do Dante's Commedia in wax, starting his career as a sculptor. Pastore Luigi Santini wrote of her presence in Florence: 'She was the matriarch of a clan of writers; herself, two sons and two daughters-in-law. She arrived in Florence with her son Thomas Adolphus in 1843 and took up residence in Piazza Santa Croce, immediately entering into friendly relations with notables of the Court and the British community. In 1849 she moved with her son and daughter-in-law Theodosia Garrow to a little house, Villino Trollope, in Piazza Barbano (now Indipendenza). She dedicated herself to the theatre, organized Anglo-Florentine social life, and wrote prolifically, and her house became a meeting place and obligatory reference point even for such writers as Charles Dickens, Thomas Hardy and Thackeray. Her son's autobiography, What I Remember (London, 1887), is a splendid window on cosmopolitan and cultivated Florence'.

Auguste Hervieu                Villino Trollope             

Stele. Marmista ignoto. Sec. XIX, post 10/1863. Ambito toscano. Stele in marmo incisa in lettere capitali in lingua latina e numeri arabi, marmo sporco, posta su basamento in pietra serena, recinto in pietra serena con quattro colonnini spezzati. Intervento di pulitura, Alberto Casciani/ Daniel-Claudiu Dumitrescu, 05/2010.  [M: A: 162. L: 87. P: 51.; P.s. A: 20. L: 96. P: 60; R: A: 38: 198. P: 83.] Iscrizione sepolcrale in latino incisa in lettere capitali e numeri arabi: Iscrizione sepolcrale in latino incisa in lettere capitali e numeri arabi: FRANCESCAE TROLLOPE/ QUOD MORTALE FUIT/ HIC IACET/ . . . / MEMORIA/ NULLUM MARMOR QUAERIT/ APUD STAPLETON/ IN AGRO SOMERSET ANGLORUM/ A.D. 1780 NATA/ FLORENTIAE/ TUMULUM A.D.1863/ NACTA EST/ Eglise Evangelique-Reformée de Florence Régistre des Morts: Françoise Veuve Trolloope, l'Angleterre, fille de Revd. Guillaume Milton, et de Marie, née Gressley, son épouse/ Records, Guildhall Library, London: GL23777/1 N° 337 Burial 08/10 Age 84 Rev Pendleton/ Hampshire Advertiser, Morning Post, relict of Thomas Anthony Trollope, Esq, barrister-at-law/ Maquay Diaries, EBB Letters/ Registro alfabetico delle persone tumulate nel Cimitero di Pinti: Trolloape [Trollope] nata Milton/ Vedova Francesca/ Guglielmo/ Inghilterra/ Firenze/ 6 Ottobre/ 1863/ Anni 84/ 849/ On the Trollopes in Florence, see Giuliana Artom Treves, Golden Ring, passim/ Thomas Adolphus Trollope writes the Latin of the inscriptions for his mother, his wife, his father-in-law; Thomas Adolphus Trollope, What I Remember, I & II/ N&Q Francisca Trollope, b. at Stapleton, Somt, 1780, ob. 1863. (In Latin.)/ NDNB entries for Trollopes, etc/*=Dennis Looney. Chiesa Evangelica Riformata Svizzera, 1827-present. Nulla osta. See ironchain.html, http://www-florin.ms/gimel CBV.html#Ayres, Mediatheca 'Fioretta Mazzei' holdings, TAU.

In Sector A, at the end of the path under the one mimosa tree (he wanted four!), lies the modern tomb (1945) for Walter Savage Landor with its epitaph be Algernon Swinburne. He wrote exquisite poetry, often in quatrains, and also the prose Imaginary Conversations. One of these between Dante and Beatrice, taking place when they were young by a fig tree and a wall. Though married unhappily he was a Feminist, enamoured of an Earl's daughter, Rose Aylmer, who died in India and is buried there with his epitaph, praising women such as Aspasia and Rosa Madiai, friends with the Brownings and the American Kate Field.



Lastra in marmo con lettere in piombo. Intervento di restauro Meridiana Restauri, Alberto Casciani, 2006; Intervento di pulitura, Daniel-Claudiu Dumitrescu, 2018. Barfucci afferma che la lastra originaria fu sostituita nel 1946. Nel settore B cippo con il nome ad indicare la collocazione della tomba. [M: A: 4.5; L: 69; P: 141; P.s.: A: 38; L: 78; P: 151.] Iscrizione sepolcrale in inglese in lettere capitali e numeri arabi, incisa: IN MEMORY OF/ WALTER SAVAGE LANDOR/ BORN 30th OF JANUARY 1775/ DIED 17th OF SEPTEMBER 1864/ AND THOU HIS FLORENCE TO THY TRUST/ RECEIVE AND KEEP/ KEEP SAFE HIS DEDICATED DUST/ HIS SACRED SLEEP/ SO SHALL THY LOVERS COME FROM FAR/ MIX WITH THY NAME/ MORNING STAR WITH EVENING STAR/ HIS FAULTLESS FAME/ A.G. SWINBURNE / Eglise Evangelique-Reformée de Florence Régistre des Morts: Walter Savage Landor, l'Angleterre/ II: 1859-1865 'Registre des Sepultures avec detail des frais, Francs 387.88/ Records, Guildhall Library, London: GL23777/1 N° 348 Burial 19/09, Rev Pendleton/ Registro alfabetico delle tumulazioni nel Cimitero di Pinti: Landor/ Gualtiero Savage/ / Inghilterra/ Firenze/ 17 Settembre/ 1864/ Anni 90/ 879/ Thomas Adolphus Trollope, What I Remember, II.244-262, notes Landor and the Garrows knew each other well from Devon days, gives Landor's letter about Kate Field's Atlantic Monthly article mentioning the Alinari photograph of himself/ N&Q Walter Savage Landor, ob. 17 Sept 1864/ NDNB entry/ Freeman, 223/ Belle Arti scheda/°=Gen. Pier Lamberto Negroni Bentivoglio. Pulitura della tomba e della stele, Dumitrescu, 2018. Chiesa Evangelica Riformata Svizzera, 1827-present.

In Sector B, near the tombs of other members of his family, his daughter, Theodosia, her mother-in-law, Frances Trollope, is the tomb of Joseph Garrow.


Joseph Garrow was the first person to translate Dante's Vita nova into English, which he published with the Italian and English on facing pages, with the misleading title, The Earliest Life of Dante. It was printed in Florence by Felix Le Monnier in 1846. Times Literary Supplement 17/5/1920, remarked 'but it is a curious footnote to the literary annals of Anglo-India which proves that the son of an Indian mother lived to translate Dante and to move in a circle where the Brownings and Landor were the greater lights'. The Fioretta Mazzei Mediatheca has purchased a fine leather-bound facing page facsimile copy of the editio princeps from India. Thomas Adolphus Trollope writes in What I Remember, II.150-159: The little boy was born to the Indian Civil Servant's wife, Sultana, who was said to be an Indian princess. Joseph Garrow senior left his son Joseph £5,000, the interest to be used for his education ‘which I desire may be as good as he is capable of receiving in Europe’. He left his sister Eleanora Garrow £2,000 and a further £1,000 on condition that she ‘takes care of and attends to the education’ of his son. Eleanora certainly seems to have been Joseph’s affectionate aunt, and in her will, proved in July 1805, she left him £1,000 in 4% stock, to be given to him when he was 21. She also left £1,000 and some silver items to John Wright, her father’s nephew who was at Caius College, Cambridge, ‘in expectation he will continue as far as lies in his power to be a kind Friend to the dear Son of my late worthy Brother Joseph’. John Wright was in his early 30s and was about to take deacon’s orders. JLMaquay, Diaries 13/11/1857 'old Garrow wretched man died on Tuesday paralytic stroke.' His daughter Theodosia (T. Garrow on the title page) made a translation of Giovanni Battista Niccolini’s Arnold of Brescia, a tragedy, and this was published in London, also in 1846. See
B85/ THEODOSIA (GARROW) TROLLOPE, C77/ HARRIET THEODOSIA FISHER (GARROW). See also Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of pastellists before 1800, Russell1.pdf and http://www.florin.ms/garrows.html

Joseph Garrow, Joseph [or, less likely, Sir William Garrow], Eleanor

Cippo. Marmista ignoto. Sec. XIX, post 11/1857. Ambito toscano. Cippo in pietra serena a sostituzione del cippo originario (non siamo a conoscenza dell'epoca), frammenti cippo originario conservati, inciso con iscrizione sepolcrale in latino in lettere capitali e numeri arabi, epitaffio di Thomas Adolphus Trollope, genero di Joseph Garrow. [M: A: 104. L: 60. P: 19.] Iscrizione sepolcrale in latino in lettere capitali e numeri arabi: HIC JACET IOSEPHUS GARROW/ ARMr/ DE BRADDONS IN AGRO DEVON/ APUD INDOS NATUS/ A.D. 1789/ FLORENTIAN DENATUS/ A.D. 1857/ Eglise Evangelique-Reformée de Florence Régistre des Morts: Joseph Garrow, d'Angleterre/ I: 1852-1859 'Registre des Sèpultures avec detail des frais', Paoli 685/ Q 280: 408 Paoli/ Records, Guildhall Library, London: GL23777/1 N°242, Burial 12/11, Rev O'Neill; marriage of child Theodosia 03/04/48 to Thomas Adolphus Trollope at HBM (Hamilton), Joseph Garrow, Harriet Fisher, Frances Trollope present, Rev Robbins (E101)/ Maquay Diaries: 13 Nov 1857/ Morning Chronicle/ Registro alfabetico delle persone tumulate nel Cimitero di Pinti: Garrow/ +/ Giuseppe/ / Inghilterra/ Firenze/ 10 Novembre/ 1867 [1857]/ Anni 67/ 624/ father of Theodosia Garrow-Trollope (12 Aprile/ 1865/ Anni 46/ 904/+/ C11E), stepfather of Harriet Theodosia Fisher (12 Novembre/ 1848/ Anni 37/ 393/ Latin epitaph written by Thomas Adolphus Trollope). See Giuliana Artom Treves, Golden Ring, pp. 137/Chiesa Evangelica Riformata Svizzera, 1827-present. See Mediatheca 'Fioretta Mazzei' holdings, TAU

Again, in Sector B, but along the central path is the tomb of Elizabeth Barrett Browning, who had studied Dante in his Italian as a child in England's Malvern, then came to Italy to include him and his poetry in her Casa Guidi Windows, which we have translated and re-published in a parallel text edition:


I have written elsewhere on Elizabeth Barrett Browning, especially in the notes to our edition for Penguin of Aurora Leigh and Other Poems, but also in the essay on her death and burial, ebbdeath.html of which the following excerpt is relevant to this virtual e-book on our tombs.
In her last letter, which breaks off unfinished, Robert halting it, we witness exhaustion (Kenyon, II.448-450).

    Harper's Monthly engraving of EBB's tomb, 1867

Sarcofago. Disegno: Frederic Lord Leighton; Scultore Francesco Giovanozzi; Firma: FRANCESCO GIOVANNOZZI FECE. [sarcofago in marmo e elementi decorativi in piombo su disegno di Lord Leighton eseguito da Francesco Giovannozzi, firma in basso a sinistra. Del fratello, Luigi Giovannozzi (1791-1870), è la tomba della Duchessa d'Albany in Santa Croce]. Sec. XIX, post 1864. Ambito toscano. Sarcofago scolpito con cammeo a simbolo della Poesia, arpe, lira greca (con il Dio Pan bifronte del Giardino Torrigiani), arpa ebrea con catena spezzata, arpa cristiana; intagliato con gigli e fiori delle Isole britanniche, rosa, trifoglio, giunchiglie, rami d'ulivo; sarcofago retto da sei colonne con gigli su disegno di Lord Leighton. Ultimo intervento di restauro, Meridiana Restauri, 2006, recinto in ferro, intervento conservativo sul ferro Daniel Dumitrescu, 2008. Per i disegni preparatori conservati alla Royal Academy Library, ecc., si veda ebbdeath.html [M: A: 105. L 191.2: P: 118.5; P.s. A: 37. L: 212. P: 114.6  Recinto A: 72. Totale: A: 204. L: 191.2. P: 118.5 ] Iscrizione sepolcrale in lettere capitali e numeri arabi in piombo: E.B.B./ OB.1861./ Eglise Evangelique-Reformée de Florence Régistre des Morts: Elisabeth Barrett Browning, l'Angleterre, agé de 45 ans/ Q 459: 271 Paoli, including English Church's tax of 113 Paoli/ Q 479: 90 Paoli paid to Ferdinando Giorgi, Master Mason for digging two graves for EBB/ Records, Guildhall Library, London: GL23777/1 N°293 Burial 01/07 Rev O'Neill, 'bronchitis'/ Registro alfabetico delle persone tumulate nel Cimitero di Pinti: 79. Barrett Browning/ Elisabetta/ / Inghilterra/ Firenze/ 29 Giugno/ 1861/ Anni 45 [incorrect, 55]/ 737/ N&Q 207. E. B. B., ob. 1861. No other inscription/ Freeman, 236-23/ NDNB article/ Belle Arti 1993-1997 scheda/ Henderson/ Webbs: heart attack, morphine poisoning?/ Chiesa Evangelica Riformata Svizzer, 1827-preent. Nulla osta.



Adolfo Mussafia.
'Sul testo del Tesoro di BL, Studio di Adolfo Mussafia presentato nella tornata della classe, 1868'. Denkschriften Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften 18-19 (1868), 265-334, and Vienna: Imperiale Regia Tipografia di Corte e di Stato, 1869.
This Italo-Austrian scholar also published this thesis a third time as an appendix to Thor Sundby (E), Appendix II, pp. 279-388. He notes that there are two principal Tesoro MS families, of which the first only was in print. He, like Minckwitz, proposed a new edition which never materialized, until that by Holloway (Regione Toscana, 2021).

Domenico Comparetti. Virgilio nel Medo Evo. Firenze: "La Nuova Italia" Editrice, 1955. 2 vols.

Robert Davidsohn. Storia di Firenze. Trans. Giovanni Battista Klein. Firenze: Sansone, 1957. 8 volumes.

Robert Davidsohn (1853-1937) Uno spirito libero tra cronaca e storia. Atti della Giornata di Studio. Firenze: Leo S. Olschki Editore. 3 vols. Biblioteca dell'"Archivium Romanticum" 309. Leo S. Olschki Editore, Firenze, 2007.

Robert Davidsohn (1853-1937) Uno spirito libero tra cronaca e storia. Atti della Giornata di Studio. Firenze: Leo S. Olschki Editore. Extract from vol I. Biblioteca dell'"Archivium Romanticum" 309. Leo S. Olschki Editore, Firenze, 2007. Steffi Roettgen, Firenze, 2007.

Steffi Roettgen. 'Dal "Borsen-Courier" di Berlino al "Genio" di Firenze. Lo storico Robert Davidsohn e il suo lascito fiorentino'. Extract: Wissenschaft, Kunst und Forschungspolitik um 1900. Die Grundung des kunsthistorischen Instituts in Florenze. Hg. von Max Seidel, Venedig 1999. Steffi Roettgen, Firenze, 2007.

Dennis Looney. Freedom Readers: The African-American Reception of Dante Alighieri and the Divine Comedy. The William and Catherine Devers Series in Dante and Medieval Italian Literature. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, 2011. xiv + 280 pp, index, bibliography. $30,00. ISBN 978-0-268-03386-6.

Frances Trollope. Jonathan Jefferson Whitlaw
. Preface, Julia Bolton Holloway. Illustrations, Auguste Hervieu, F.R.A. 469 pp. ISBN 9798615560989
Walter Savage Landor. Imaginary Conversations. 'Dante and Beatrice'.

Joseph Garrow. The Early Life Of Dante

Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Casa Guidi Windows/Le Finestre de Casa Guidi.

Julia Bolton Holloway

Dissertation : 'The Figure of the Pilgrim in Medieval Poetry.' Director: Professor Phillip W. Damon, English and Comparative Literature, University of California, Berkeley, 1974. Published as The Pilgrim and the Book: A Study of Dante, Langland and Chaucer, 1987, 1989, 1993.


Brunetto Latini. Il Tesoretto. Edition, Translation, Preface. New York: Garland, 1981. Garland Library of Medieval Literature, 2. Ed. James J. Wilhelm. xliii + 164 pp. Reviewed: Italica; Italianistica: Rivista di letteratura italiana; Speculum . ISBN 0-8240-9376-3. Archived, http://www.florin.ms/Tesorett.html

Brunetto Latini: An Analytic Bibliography. London: Grant and Cutler, 1986. Research Bibliographies and Checklists. Ed. Alan Deyermond. 153 pp. Reviewed: Italian Studies; Zeitschrift für Romanische Philologie; Les Lettres Romanes; Romanische Forschungen. ISBN 0-7293-0216-4 or 84-599-1681-2. Obtainable from Boydell and Brewer

The Pilgrim and the Book: A Study of Dante, Langland and Chaucer. Berne, New York: Peter Lang, 1987. Second edition, 1989. xix + 321 pp. Third, revised, edition, 1993. xxii + 303 pp. Reviewed: Studies in the Age of Chaucer; Annali d'Italianistica; Speculum; Journal of Medieval Studies; Medium Aevum.  ISBN 0-8204-2090-5. Type-set by author in Nota Bene. Obtainable from Editrice 'Aureo Anello'

Twice-Told Tales: Brunetto Latino and Dante Alighieri. New York: Peter Lang, 1993. xiv + 552 pp. Reviewed: Speculum; Parergon; Annali italianistica. ISBN 0-8204-1954-0. Type-set by author in Nota Bene. Obtainable from Editrice 'Aureo Anello'

Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Aurora Leigh and Other Poems. Edited, John Robert Glorney Bolton and Julia Bolton Holloway. Harmondsworth: Penguin Classics, 1995. xx + 517 pp. Originally type-set by author in Nota Bene. ISBN 0-14-043412-7

Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Aurora Leigh: Romanzo in versi. Trad. Bruna Dell'Agnese, ed. Julia Bolton Holloway, AD. Florence: Le Lettere (search 'Aurora Leigh'), 2002. ISBN 88-7166-665-8.

Il pellegrino e il libro: Uno studio su Dante Alighieri. De strata francigena 20/1 (2012). Firenze: Centro Studi Romei. 191 pp.

White Silence: A Virtual Guidebook to Florence's Swiss-owned so-called 'English Cemetery. E-book. Florence, Aureo Anello Books, 2013

Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Casa Guidi Windows/Le Finestre di Casa Guidi. Traduzione di Rosalynd Pio. Testa a fronte, inglese/italiano. Firenze: Aureo Anello Books, 2017.

Christine de Piza/ Cristina da Pizzano. Le Chemin de Longs Etudes/ Il Cammin di Lungo Studio. Traduzione di Ester Zago. Testo a fronte, francese/italiano. De Strata Francigena. A cura di Renato Stopani. Firenze: Centro Studi Romei, 2017. v + 128 pp.

“Brunetto Latino.” In Oxford Bibliographies in Medieval Studies. Ed. Paul E. Szarmach. New York: Oxford University Press, 2019

Il Tesoro di Brunetto Latino, Maestro di Dante Alighieri, Il Tesoretto, Il Tesoro, Firenze: Regione Toscana, 2021. 428 pp.

The Aureo Anello Associazione of the Mediatheca Fioretta Mazzei and the English Cemetery gives the Commedia in multimedia (text, recordings, miniatures, Botticelli and Blake drawings, and music settings from manuscripts of Dante's time) at http://www.florin.ms/Dantevivo.html

The Musica della Commedia of the Ensemble San Felice of Federico Bardazzi presents a two hour concert with text and images on YouTube, that was performed in Germany, Spain and Italy, including Ravenna's San Francesco and Florence's Duomo.

And an app of Dante's Florence at http://www.florin.ms/StonesofFlorence.html

See also the Academia Bessarion at http://www.florin.ms/Bessarione.html


6 May 2021, 12.00 m, 700 DANTE, Celebration in Florence's English Cemetery to Honour its Dante Scholars and Lovers

Academia Bessarion Zoom discussion, http://www.florin.ms/Bessarion6e.mp4

: Dante vivo || White Silence