FLORIN WEBSITE © JULIA BOLTON HOLLOWAYAUREO ANELLO ASSOCIAZIONE, 1997-2017: MEDIEVAL: BRUNETTO LATINO, DANTE ALIGHIERI, SWEET NEW STYLE: BRUNETTO LATINO, DANTE ALIGHIERI, & GEOFFREY CHAUCER || VICTORIAN: WHITE SILENCE: FLORENCE'S 'ENGLISH' CEMETERY || ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING || WALTER SAVAGE LANDOR || FRANCES TROLLOPE || ABOLITION OF SLAVERY || FLORENCE IN SEPIA  || CITY AND BOOK CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII || MEDIATHECA 'FIORETTA MAZZEI' || EDITRICE AUREO ANELLO CATALOGUE || UMILTA WEBSITE || RINGOFGOLD WEBSITE || LINGUE/LANGUAGES: ITALIANO, ENGLISH || VITA
New
: Dante vivo || White Silence
 


Lecture written, presented at Reykjavik, 2000.

DANTE ALIGHIERI, FIRENZE E IL GIUBILEO DEL 1300

Il giglio sulla tomba di Elizabetta Barrett Browning

ette secoli or sono, Dante Alighieri, a metà della sua vita, l'anno del Giubileo del 1300, ebbe un sogno, una visione. La visione dell'Inferno, del Purgatorio e del Paradiso: la Divina Commedia. Questo sogno, questo poema, ebbe inizio il 24/25 marzo. Il 25 marzo era il giorno che il Medio Evo considerava come il giorno della Creazione (Brunetto Latino, maestro di Dante, nel suo Tesoro), della Caduta di Adamo ed Eva, dell'Annunciazione (EVA/AVE), e della Crocifissione. Nel Medio Evo un poema prende l'avvio alla Creazione. Il 25 marzo del 1300 era un venerdì.

Quando, più tardi, Dante scrisse questo poema nell'amarezza dell'esilio, un poema sulla visione e sul sogno che ebbe a Firenze, ne colloca la data d'inizio al 25 marzo. Firenze, con il suo giglio, è la città dell'Annunciazione, e fino al Settecento continuò a datare l'inizio dell'anno civile dal 25 marzo, ovvero dall'Annunciazione. È questa la visione della Parola che si è fatta carne in mezzo a noi. '{Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita, mi ritrovai', questo l'incipit del poema di Dante, così echeggiando e dando vita nuova all'{'In Principio' del libro della Genesi e del Vangelo di Giovanni. 

ANNUNCIAZIONE

Nell'Inferno manca il Verbo, non c'è '{Cristo'. Tutto è tenebra. Nel Purgatorio e nel Paradiso troviamo l'Annunciazione, rappresentata da Dante scolpita nel vivo marmo in Purgatorio X 34-51.

{L'angel che venne in terra col decreto
de la molt'anni lagrimata pace,
ch'aperse il ciel del suo lungo divieto,
dinanzi a noi pareva sì verace
quivi intagliato in un atto soave,
che non sembiava imagine che tace.
Giurato si saria ch'el dicesse 'Ave!';
perché iv'era imaginata quella
ch'ad aprir l'alto amor volse la chiave;
e avea in atto impressa esta favella
'Ecce ancilla Dei', propriamente
come figura in cera si suggella.

Giotto era iscritto come Dante all'Arte dei Medici e Speziali (Purgatorio XI 94-96). Giotto nella Cappella dell'Arena a Padova dipinse l'Annunciazione a cui la cappella stessa è dedicata. Il concetto del Purgatorio X, tratto dal Vangelo di Luca, ha ispirato numerosissimi dipinti fiorentini, in particolare il dipinto miracoloso della Santissima Annunziata i dipinti del Beato Angelico, così come numerosissime formelle di terracotta dei Della Robbia, i quali con la preghiera trasformarono il nostro fango nel bianco e nell'azzuro dei colori del cielo. Ma Dante scrive prima del Beato Angelico, prima di Donatello e dei Della Robbia. E' stato loro profeta e il profeta (' non senza onore salva nel suo paese ') di Firenze.

Un secolo e mezzo fa Elizabeth Barrett Browning imitando il Sommo Poeta così descrive la Festa dell'Annunciazione alla Santissima Annunziata,

{In that great square of the Santissima . . .
A train of priestly banners, cross and psalm, -
The white-veiled rose-crowned maidens holding up
Tall tapers, weighty for such wrists, aslant
To the blue luminous tremor of the air,
And letting drop the white wax as they went
To eat the bishop's wafer . . . Aurora Leigh I.77-85

[Sotto un cielo straniero, nella grande piazza
Della Santissima, un giorno venne verso di lui . . .
Un corteo con bandiere, croci, inni e fanciulle
Biancovelate, incoronate di rose, reggenti a fatica
Mille pesanti candele che fendevano la luminosa
Aria azzurra e lasciavano sgocciolare cera bianca
Sulla via verso la chiesa, dove andavano
A comunicarsi dal vescovo.
Trad. di Bruna Dell'Agnese]


  Nel Purgatorio Dante descrive una processione di sette candelabri che a lui parevano alberi.

{Poco più oltre, sette alberi d'oro
falsava nel parere il lungo tratto
del mezzo ch'era ancor tra noi e loro;
ma quand' i' fui sì presso di lor fatto,
che l'obietto comun, che 'l senso inganna,
non perdea per distanza alcun suo atto,
la virtù ch'a ragion discorso ammanna,
sì com'elli eran candelabri apprese,
e ne le voci del cantare 'Osanna'. Purgatorio XXIX.43-51

Ancora oggi il Giovedì Santo in Duomo si svolge questa stessa processione con il baldacchino dorato del Santissimo preceduto dallo stendardo con in cima rami d'ulivo, e da sette candelabri che simboleggiano i sette candelabri del Tempio di Gerusalemme. Nè Dante,  nè la liturgia fiorentina hanno perso memoria di questo antichissimo e bellissimo albero d'oro.

Sulla porta dell'antica cappella dietro il Palazzo Arcivescovile di Firenze campeggiano sette candelabri

Dopo questo corteo Dante Alighieri è condotto al cospetto di Beatrice Portinari. E' circondata da sette donne, che sono anche sette stelle, sette pianeti, sette lampade, ed è abbigliata con i colori della Santissima Trinità, bianco, verde, rosso, che diverranno poi i colori della bandiera italiana, la sua verde corona è una corona d'ulivo:

sovra candido vel cinta d'uliva
donna m'apparve, sotto verde manto
vestita di color di fiamma viva . Purgatorio XXX 31-33

GIUBILEO

Dante, esiliato e scomunicato, ha volutamente scritto un poema che dal principio alla fine ricorda il Giubileo del 1300 proclamato da Bonifacio VIII nelle bolla Antiquorum relatio e da Giotto raffigurato in San Giovanni in Laterano.

Giotto, San Giovanni Laterano

In Inferno XVIII 28-33, Dante descrive la folla che si accalca sul ponte Sant'Angelo,

come i Roman per l'essercito molto,
l'anno del giubileo, su per lo ponte
hanno a passar la gente modo colto,
che da l'un lato tutti hanno la fronte
verso 'l castello e banno a Santo Pietro,
da l'altra sponda vanno verso 'l monte.

In Purgatorio II 98-99 è spiegato a Dante che le anime dei morti possono così rapidamente viaggiare da Ostia al monte in mezzo all'oceano grazie all'indulgenza dell'Anno Santo giubilare. Il Paradiso XXXI è intriso di similitudini, e Dante paragona il suo stupore dinanzi alla Città della Rosa Celeste ai pellegrini che giungono a Roma per il Giubileo del 1300 (31-36, 43-45, 103-108).

L'ultima similitudine è quella della Veronica, mostrata ai pellegrini il Venerdì Santo.

{Qual è colui che forse di Croazia
viene a veder la Veronica nostra,
che per l'antica fama non sen sazia,
ma dice nel pensier, fin che si mostra:
'Segnor mio Iesù Cristo, Dio verace,
or fu sì fatta la sembianza vostra?'

Dante scrive infine dell'Annunciazione in Paradiso XXXIII 1-39, ricordando la sua Firenze - città che gli diede i natali e in cui visse prima dell'esilio - mette in bocca a San Bernardo un inno alla Vergine,

{Vergine Madre, figlia del tuo figlio,
umile e alta più che creatura,
termine fisso d'etterno consiglio,
tu se' colei che l'umana natura
nobilitasti sì, che 'l suo fattore
non disdegnò de farsi sua fattura.
Nel ventre tuo si raccese l'amore,
per lo cui caldo ne l'etterna pace
così è germinato questo fiore.

. . .

Il Beato Angelico, L'Annunciazione, Benedizione delle case, Diocesi di Fiesole, Quaresima 2000

Il mio sogno è che in questo Giubileo Dante e il suo poema siano celebrati a Firenze con i sette candelabri. Ogni candelabro per ciascuno dei sette secoli di vita "in mezzo a noi" di questo poema teologico così tanto amato in tutto il mondo.



DANTE ALIGHIERI AND THE 1300 PILGRIMAGE JUBILEE

Lily, Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Tomb

{In 1302, Dante Alighieri was to be exiled from Florence by its government and excommunicated by Pope Boniface VIII for being in the losing party, the Whites, who were opposed by the Blacks, both parties divisions of the Guelfs, in opposition to the Ghibellines.

During the remaining years of his life, Dante came to compose the encyclopedic poem, the Commedia , including in it an entire university education, of geography, history, science, theology. It is a vast Bible for the city where he was born, and which had exiled him, it is also for all Europe, and indeed for the whole world. He wrote it in his vernacular language, so that even women and children could read it, rather than in the male Latin of only the educated elite.

This lecture will discuss first Dante's day for beginning the Commedia, 24 March as Maundy Thursday, then 25 March as the date of the Creation of the World, the Fall of Man, the Annunciation to Mary, and the Crucifixion. The second part of the lecture will discuss Dante's year for the Commedia, 1300. For this was the year Pope Boniface VIII, whom he places in Hell for excommunicating him, proclaimed as the Christian Jubilee, when all were to converge on the city of Rome in pilgrimage. Dante instead will centre his great poem on both Rome and Jerusalem, juxtaposing the physical pilgrimage to terrestrial Rome, with the spiritual journey of the soul to celestial Jerusalem.

This lecture, given, 2000, in Reykjavik, Iceland, celebrates a great Italian Jubilee poem, and Iceland's great and double Jubilee.

ANNUNCIATION

{Seven centuries ago, Dante Alighieri tells us that, in the midst of his life, in the Jubilee Year of 1300, he had a dream, a vision, of Hell, of Purgatory and of Heaven. This dream, this poem, begins 24/25 March, 25 March being considered in the Middle Ages (even by Brunetto Latino , Dante's teacher, in his Tesoro) the day of the Creation, of the Fall of Adam and Eve, of the Annunciation (EVA/AVE), of the Crucifixion. In the Middle Ages a poem begins at the Creation. In 1300, March 25 was on a Friday.

The Diocese of Fiesole blesses, during Lent, each house, leaving with them an image. In this Jubilee year of 2000, dedicated to the Mystery of the Incarnation, our Olivetan monk/parish priest, Don Patrizio, gave us this image, of Fra Angelico's Annunciation, from the Church of St Martin at Ponte a Mensola (by Bernard Berenson's Villa I Tatti), where the Irish St Andrew, brother to St Brigida from Ireland, had died, A.D 876. In the upper left hand corner Adam and Eve are shown being expulsed from Eden.

When Dante later wrote this poem in the bitterness of exile about his vision, his dream, he had had in Florence, he dated it so because Florence, with the lily, is the city of the Annunciation and she always used this theological date for her New Year until the Eighteenth Century. It is the vision of the Word beginning to become flesh and dwelling in our midst. ' Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita, mi ritrovai . . . ', Dante wrote in the beginning of his poem, echoing and renewing Genesis and John, ' In Principio '. Then he shows the Annunciation sculpted in living marble in Purgatorio X.34-51.

We recall that his fellow guild member was Giotto (Purgatorio XI.94-96). Giotto painted the Annunciation in the Arena Chapel, dedicated to the Annunciation, in Padua. From Dante's words shall come many Florentine paintings, especially the miraculous one of the Santissima Annunziata and those of Fra Angelico, and many terra cotta Della Robbias, of our clay made of the heaven's blue and white through prayer. But Dante writes before the works of Fra Angelico, Donatello or Della Robbia had come into being. He is their prophet and the prophet (' not without honour except in his own country '), of Florence.

A century and a half ago, Elizabeth Barrett Browning described the Feast of the Annunciation at the Santissima Annunziata.

The English poetess was imitating the great Italian poet. In the Purgatorio Dante had written about what he had seen that seemed to him a procession of seven trees but which were seven candlesticks. In Florence's Cathedral, even today, on Maundy Thursday when carrying the Blessed Sacrament to the Altar of Repose where it will remain until Easter Sunday, there is this same procession with a golden baldequin, preceded by a great flag with branches of olive surmounting it and seven candlesticks, the seven candelabra of the Jerusalem Temple. Neither Dante nor Florence's liturgy forget this most ancient and most beautiful golden tree. But the city of Florence, it seems to me, has forgotten her prodigal son of seven centuries ago, who wrote honouring the Annunciation of the first Jubilee of 1300.

Above the Door of the Ancient Chapel Behind the Archbishop's Palace in Florence are Seven Candles in Seven Candlesticks

After this pageant Dante Alighieri is brought to Beatrice Portinari, she being surrounded by seven ladies, seven stars, seven planets, seven candles. Beatrice herself is dressed as the Holy Trinity, in white, green and red, the colours of the Italian national flag, and the green of her crown is of olive.

Finally, Dante writes of the Annunciation in Paradiso XXXIII.1-39, in a memory of his Florence where he was born and where he had lived before his exile. Dante has St Bernard sing, The Madonna of Florence, Mary, is called here the Flower, the Rose, Florence being her city, giving her in its art, in its poetry, in its architecture, a Renaissance, a rebirth, a re-germination. Its great cathedral begun in Dante's day, finished centuries later, is dedicated to Santa Maria del Fiore.

JUBILEE

Dante, in exile and also in excommunication, deliberately wrote a poem that is throughout about the 1300 Jubilee proclaimed by his great enemy, Pope Boniface VIII, in the Bull Antiquorum relatio and recorded by Giotto's famous fresco at the Lateran. Giotto was Dante's fellow guild member of the Florentine Arte dei Medici e Speciali.

Dante creates a palimpsest, a vast labyrinth, in his Commedia with several cities. We recall medieval manuscripts to conserve parchment scraped the previous text clean and wrote anew. His text is like 3D chess in time and space. Pagan Athens and Rome are found inscribed there in its pages. Likewise Christian Jerusalem and Rome. And, above all, Dante creates, from the bitterness of exile, the topography of his own beloved city of Florence, of which he had been citizen, of which he had been Prior. When Dante was baptized in St John's Bapistry this is what he would have seen, even if his eyes could not yet have focussed upon these scenes or yet understood them. This mosaic labyrinth above every baptized Florentine child becomes Dante's labyrinthine scheme of damnation, purgation, salvation in the three canticles of his Song of Songs, his Inferno , his Purgatorio, his Paradiso, of the Commedia .

Let us see what Dante says about Rome in the 1300 Jubilee in his cityscape poem. In Inferno XVIII.28-33 he tells us about traffic control for the pilgrims flocking there.

Later, he compares the giant Nimrod's face to the size of the great pine cone sculpted from stone that then stood in the courtyard of old St Pater's Basilica (Inferno XXXI.58-60). But Dante also invests Hell, Inferno, with infernal cities, including his own erring Florence. Among the infernal cities is Babylon, thought, in the Middle Ages, to be Egypt's Cairo. Throughout Hell Dante places the Ten Plagues of the Exodus from Pharoah's Egypt, and the Seven Plagues of the Apocalypse, or Rome as Babylon in John's political vision allegory, and we find there hordes of frogs lurking in similes, rivers of blood, flaming hail, terrible skin diseases and profound darkness. Inferno above all else is Egypt and bondage to sin.

In Purgatorio II.98-99 it is explained to Dante that the souls of the dead could voyage so speedily from Ostia, Rome's great sea port where the Tiber River ran into the sea, to the mountain in the ocean because of the Holy Year's Jubilee indulgence. This mountain of Purgatorio rises up out of a great Ocean lying between European shores and those of the Orient. America, at least by Christopher Columbus, is not yet discovered. Italians, from Irish pilgrims, have heard of islands lying out in the Ocean, islands like Iceland, islands that are told of in the Imram Brain, the Voyage of Bran, and in the Voyages of St Brendan . It was the Irish, too, who introduced the Jubilee concept of Purgatory to the Roman Church, from Station Island and St Patrick's Purgatory , the place and its dream vision poem. These become models Dante uses in the Commedia.

In Inferno Dante had used images of shipcaulking (XXI.7-15, Venetian Arsenal description) and shipwreck (XXVI, Ulysses' voyage). In Purgatorio his images are of ship voyages successfully concluded, this continuing in the Paradiso . (Slides of the poem as ship).

Dante's Florence is not on the sea nor was it a maritime nation, unlike Genoa or Venice, Norway or Iceland, but Dante draws on Greek literature, reflected in Roman literature, concerning great voyages in great epic poems. He uses too those of Paul and Luke throughout the Mediterranean, palimpsesting upon all these pilgrim voyages to Jerusalem and voyages of exploration and settlement to the New World.

But Dante's model for his island mountain of Purgatory is primarily Moses' and Exodus' Mount Sinai, when the Israelites where on pilgrimage from Egyptian bondage, journeying in the Sinai Wilderness towards their Promised Land and its Jerusalem, displaced across the ocean, to where Iceland would be were it the other side of the Equator. Let me take you up this mountain, for I, too, like Egeria and many others, have climbed it in pilgrimage and even took my camera along. (Slides of Mount Sinai Pilgrimage)

And then Dante fills Paradiso XXXI, that opens with his describing Paradise as a Celestial Rose, embroidering it with similes from Roman Virgil about the building of Carthage, with further similes comparing his marvelling at the City of the Rose in the Heavens to strangers and pilgrims coming to the earthly Rome of the Jubilee of 1300.

He begins these with the Barbarians, pagan invaders, from the far north, specifically with coastlines beneath the northern stars, such as your ancestors, the Vikings, before your 1000 conversion, outside the Lateran Gate.

The Lateran Basilica was given by the Emperor Constantine to Christendom, known as the Basilica Aurea, but was destroyed in 896 in an earthquake. The Sergian Basilica, built to replace it, in turn was destroyed in a fire in 1308.

Dante is writing these words after the loss of the Lateran but in a poem landscape when its huge walls, in 1300, were still standing.

Then he gives a Christian pilgrim, looking about him in the vast St John's Lateran Basilica, seeing on its apse mosaic the preentation of Christ, said to have floated there miraculously through the Golden Doors of Reconciliation, The final simile is to the Veronica, shown to pilgrims, come perhaps from neighbouring Yugoslovia, on Good Friday at St Peter's Vatican Basilica. That movement, from the Lateran to the Vatican, from St John's Basilica to St Peter's Basilica, also maps not merely a crossing of the physical space of Rome but an important shift in Rome's ecclesiology. Earlier, Constantine established St John Lateran as the primary Christian basilica in Rome, giving to it the treasures of the Ark of the Temple, captured from Jerusalem by Titus and Vespasian, and kept before in the Caesars' Palatine, the Ark with the Tablets of the Law, the Manna of the Wilderness and Aaron's Rod, things of stone, bread, wood, now placed in a part called the Sanctum Sanctorum, the Holy of Holies, which the Popes entered but once a year, and thus the Lateran, as in Dante's text, self-consciously became the Christian's Temple of Jerusalem translated to Rome. The golden treasures, the Seven-Branched Candlestick, the Jubilee Trumpets, the Table for the Shew Bread, sacked by Titus and Vespasian from Jerusalem's Temple in A.D. 70, were lost, being captured in turn by Genseric the Vandal and taken to Carthage, then by Belisarius and taken to Justinian's Constantinople, then returned to Jerusalem when pleaded for by Jews. But meanwhile the Lateran Basilica was burned in fires, and destroyed in earthquakes, its Sanctum Sanctorum and its treasures lost, a particularly severe earthquake being soon after the Jubilee was proclaimed there by Pope Boniface VIII in 1300. So later Popes shifted the centre of Roman Christendom from the Lateran to the Vatican, eventually rebuilding the latter edifice as we see it today, and likewise concentrating on the Pope not so much as Christendom's turbaned, mitred High Priest, entering the Holy of Holies one day in the year, but now having him be Peter's Successor to Peter's Throne, holding the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven, as the Rock upon which the Church is founded. Similarly, the Golden Doors for the Reconciliation of Pilgrims were originally at the Lateran, not the Vatican.

But these Roman pilgrimage sites are only in the similes, surrounding them being celestial Jerusalem rather than terrestrial Rome. Dante's Commedia corrects Pope Boniface VIII, in having the Jubilee Year begin not 1 January but 25 March, and not be so much to Rome, as to Jerusalem. Dante is more Christological than is his Pope.

The anthropologist Victor Turner spoke of pilgrimage as liminal, when all become equal, rank and distinction laid aside, not a world of Popes and Emperors and their subjects, but a Republic whose King is Christ, journeying beside us, sharing bread and wine with us in the inn, in his humanity as our brother, unrecognized as being God. Dante similarly, though he yearns for a great and peaceable European Emperor, speaks of Christ as the humble abbot in our monastery, as a member of our college, that republic and democracy where Christ is Roman, and Dante often uses the Emmaus story from Luke 24; indeed, every meeting by first Dante and Virgil with a Third, then Dante and Virgil, is shadowily a meeting of Cleophas and Luke with Christ at the Emmaus Inn.

This is fitting for both Florence and for Iceland. Before the Medici Princes seized power, Florence had been a great Republic, Dante's teacher, Brunetto Latino, her first Chancellor. It was in that tremendous burst of energy as a Republic that the Duomo, Santa Maria del Fiore, was planned and first built, that Giotto painted frescoes and built his Bell Tower beside that Cathedral, that even the statues by Arnolfo da Cambio of King Charles of Anjou in the Capitoline and of St Peter in the Vatican Basilica were sculpted and cast. These artists knew the imperial language of power, but used it to keep their republican freedom for as long as they could. Dante, in his bitterness at being exiled from his beloved city, chose imperialism, only to find it hollow. His great and vast poem became his Logotherapy, as Viktor Frankl, who survived Auschwitz because he rewrote his destroyed book there, would say, giving to his pain an outlet. In a sense Icelandic sagas were similarly Logotherapy for your tellers and writers, your hearers and readers, ways of preserving cultural identity even more purely than amongst the rest of us northern Europeans who betrayed ourselves and our cultures, following fleeting banners of power.

I dreamed of a remembrance of Dante and of his Commedia in Florence this past Feast of the Annunciation, 25 March, and this past Easter, 23 April, of this Jubilee's 2000 minus 1300, being seven centuries, with seven candelabra carried in processions from the Santissima to the Duomo, one for each one of the seven centuries of the presence of this theological poem amongst us, so beloved throughout all the world. That did not happen. Florence forgot. I still dream of the gift of rose petals for all on the earth of the Kingdom/Republic of Heaven, petals from Dante's Celestial Rose of Florence/ Jerusalem/ Paradise, where women are equal with men. I dream also of blessed branches of olive given to all, to the whole world, especially those parts where the olive is only known from the Bible's pages, to be as a blessing of peace to all in this Jubilee Year of Peace. These rose petals and these olive leaves come to you from Dante's Florence, and were blessed by Fiesole's Bishop for you. Florence forgot; Fiesole, from which Florence was founded by Caesar, did not. Dante describes how once in Fiesole the women span and told sagas to each other, honouring their origins. It is our delight to share with you this Vita Nuova in your Terra Nuova. Dante in Purgatorio and Paradiso speaks of green leaves of trees, of Sibyl's leaves of prophecies, and the leaves of manuscripts, folio in Latin punning upon all these.


DANTE VIVO

LAPIDI DANTESCHE


FLORIN WEBSITE © JULIA BOLTON HOLLOWAYAUREO ANELLO ASSOCIAZIONE, 1997-2017: MEDIEVAL: BRUNETTO LATINO, DANTE ALIGHIERI, SWEET NEW STYLE: BRUNETTO LATINO, DANTE ALIGHIERI, & GEOFFREY CHAUCER || VICTORIAN: WHITE SILENCE: FLORENCE'S 'ENGLISH' CEMETERY || ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING || WALTER SAVAGE LANDOR || FRANCES TROLLOPE || ABOLITION OF SLAVERY || FLORENCE IN SEPIA  || CITY AND BOOK CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII || MEDIATHECA 'FIORETTA MAZZEI' || EDITRICE AUREO ANELLO CATALOGUE || UMILTA WEBSITE || RINGOFGOLD WEBSITE || LINGUE/LANGUAGES: ITALIANO, ENGLISH || VITA
New
: Dante vivo || White Silence