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THE HISTORIANS AND MEDIEVALISTS IN AND ABOUT

FLORENCE'S 'ENGLISH' CEMETERY
 

Jacques Augustin Galiffe † 1853

Galiffe/ Giacomo A./ / Svizzera/ Firenze/ 15 Dicembre/ 1853/ Anni 77/ 523

JACQUES AUGUSTIN GALIFFE (1773-1853), a Genevan historian and genealogist [in the style of Sismondi, his contemporary], lived and engaged in trade for a time in Holland, Germany and Russia, but returned to Geneva during the Napoleonic period to share in the troubles of his city. Turning to history he was in a sense the first Genevan historian to make use of documentary and archivistic sources with scientific intent. The results of his historic research, however, stripped of artifice and adulation, made him the centre of such controversy and hostility that in the end he preferred to emigrate to Florence. Italy owes to him the first systematic study of the Italian religious exiles of the sixteenth century. His daughter Sophie (1825-1841) and his second wife, Amélie Franço Pictet (1790-1872), daughter of the Charles Pictet who was the Swiss delegate at the Congress of Vienna, are also buried in the cemetery. LS

Galiffe [Claparede]/ Sofia/ Svizzera/ Firenze/ 14 Novembre/ 1841/ Anni 16/ 228
Galiffe nata Pictet/ Amalia/ Carlo/ Svizzera/ Firenze/ 14 Agosto/ 1872/ Anni 82/ 1178

Jaques (James) Augustin Galiffe, (son of Barthelemy Galiffe and Marie Naville, and brother of Colonel Jean-Pierre, No XII as above) born on 7th April 1776 godson of Jaques Rilliet-Plantamour and of Augustin de Candolle - historian and genealogist.

His studies for the magistracy or diplomacy were unfortunately brought to an end by the Revolution which ruined his family and compelled him to emigrate.  He then adopted the commercial profession for which he had no vocation, but it was the only one in which he could hope to acquire independent means, by his aptitude for work, and his remarkable gift for languages.  Besides Latin and Greek of which he was a master and English which he spoke and wrote as his mother tongue, he knew German, Dutch, Russian, Spanish and Italian, and was conversant with most of the popular dialects of the latter.  This enabled him to obtain very important posts in the best banking houses of London, Holland, Germany and Russia, but these occupations did not prevent him from continuing his favourite studies, literature, languages and specially history which his frequent travels gave him opportunities of studying in the principal libraries and archives of Europe.

Deeply attached to his native land, he remained zealous for what was called "the good cause", the triumph of which could alone restore the independence of Geneva.  When therefore Lord Carlisle, in 1798 introduced in Parliament a motion to help the Swiss against the French, Galiffe volunteered to undertake the dangerous task of intermediary.  He was then in frequent communication with the principal members of Parliament, the Duke of Portland, Lord Fitzwilliam, Lord Grenville and the famous Pitt, whose support had to be obtained.  Finding that negotiations were dragging he did not hesitate to sacrifice his excellent position in London to proceed with a few friends firmly determined to accomplish their object in the best way that circumstances would permit.  Adverse news from the theatre of the war stopped him on the way, and he enlisted as a Volunteer in a Militia Corps which was raised in England when a French invasion was expected. - After several years spent in Holland, at Gottingen, Hamburg and Berlin, he entered in 1805 the firm of Baron de Rall, banker of the Imperial Court at St. Petersburg. - M. de Speransky who was then Prime Minister made him tempting offers to enter the Russian Civil Service, but the fear of sacrificing his independence led him to refuse them, as also a proposal to take the direction of a Russian National Bank which was then being discussed.  It was during that period of his life that he kept a very interesting correspondence with Mme de Stael.

On receipt of the news that the independence of Geneva was seriously threatened by the return of Napoleon, Galiffe gave up his splendid prospects in Russia to return and enlist as a private in the Geneva contingent, in which he served throughout the campaign of Franche-Comte, first as Staff-secretary and afterwards as an Officer.  After the death of his parents, he went to Italy in 1816, and related his travels in his first book, "Italy and its inhabitants" published (in English) in London, which the reviews of the time described as one of the best of its kind.

In 1820, the brothers Brougham, appointed to defend Queen Carolina, called him twice to Milan, where his indispensable assistance was required by them in the preparation of that famous trial.

Having returned to Geneva where he married and resided till 1841, he set himself to study the history of his country, and worked at it until his death.  Appointed to the "Commission des Archives" he undertook by himself, and gratuitously, to sort and classify thousands of documents which had been completely neglected since the Revolution, and which during the foreign occupation had been left in a state of chaos and filth.  For over twenty years he persevered in this fatiguing work with a zeal which undermined his health, but neither his illness, nor his infirmities nor even the difficulties placed in his way by the ignorance and contempt of those who should have helped him, could stop him in his self-imposed task.  Not only did he reconstitute the Archives of Geneva and save them from certain destruction, but he searched for every item of information necessary to control and complete them, not only in the archives of neighbouring towns but all over Switzerland, in the registers of parishes and castles in Savoy, in the Pays de Gex, at Lyons, Dijon, Paris, Chambery, Turin, Lucca and Florence.

From 1829 to 1831 he published successively as first result of his work, two volumes of "Materials for the history of Geneva" and 2 volumes of "Genealogical Notices on Genevese families" (the third appeared in 1835).  This at once established his reputation as an historian of Geneva, but only the experts can realise the labour which these books represent.  -- The "Letters on the Middle-Ages", addressed in 1838 to the famous historian Schlosser, are the last historical work which he gave to the public.  Schlosser declared in his "Heidelberger Yahrbucher 1839" that it was the best and most learned essay he had read, as regards knowledge and criticism of the subject.

The "Letters written from Paris" had been addressed by Galiffe in 1827 to his intimate friend, Lord Brougham, Chancellor of England.  They were published in 1830 at the request of several persons to whom they had been communicated and who had been struck by the wonderful foresight with which the author had anticipated the events and solution of the political situation in France.

Although he filled no public functions in Geneva, except that of Municipal Councillor for the commune of Satigny, he took an active part in all political and religious discussions.  Full of sympathy with the principles of Aristocracy yet he condemned them when they were opposed to progress, of which he was a sincere partisan and consequently he sometimes felt himself awkwardly situated at a time when compromise was considered as a doctrine in the political system.  Sincere and convinced protestant, although a declared enemy of the calvinist dogma and system, he was a zealous champion of the liberty of creed, and in 1835 he vehemently opposed the celebration of the Jubilee of the Reformation, which he considered a blunder likely to cause discord between the citizens of the two religions.  (Lettres a un pasteur du Canton, 1835) -- The general public is only acquainted with a portion of Galiffe's works, as the major portion is still unpublished.  Besides his writings on all branches of the history of Geneva, he left a large number of sketches, notes, extracts, historical, literary and artistic criticisms, studies on languages, a very learned genealogical notice on the principal houses of the princes and counts of Southern and Central Europe, shedding considerable light on the most obscure period of the Middle-Ages, and lastly a voluminous correspondence.  The latter part of his literary legacy is not the least interesting item, as he was in constant communication with the celebrities of many countries.  To those already named, Mme de Stael and Lord H Brougham, (Lord Chancellor of England and one of his intimate friends) must be added, Mr Backhouse, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Lord Grosvenor, afterwards Marquis of Westminster.  Among politicians and statesmen may be named Lord Fitzwilliam, Viceroy of Ireland, Lord Carlisle, Lord Palmerston, William Russell, Capo d'Istria, Marquis Luchesini, Ambassador to Prussia, Count Rossi, Baron Stein, Wickham, British Minister with the Army of Princes, M.de Speransky, Prime Minister of Russia, and Count J de Maistre -- among historians, Messrs de Barante, Thierry, Mignet, Michelet, Sismondi, Schlosser, Karamzine, Viasemsky, and in Switzerland, de Mulinen, de Grenus, d'Estavayer, de Gingins, de Charriere -- among professors, Fellenberg and Bonstetten -- among women-authors, Lady Charlotte Bury, Mme de Montolieu, Miss Edgeworth, Mme Necker de Saussure -- among musicians, Dusseck, C M de Weber, Steibelt, Field and Abbe Litz who owed him his first letters of recommendation -- the poet C Didier whom he was the first to encourage, the famous naturalist Agassiz whom he assisted pecuniarily in the prosecution of his studies, etc., etc. -- As historian of Geneva, Galiffe is certainly the pioneer of the modern school of History.  His publications, drawn direct from authentic documents shocked many people by the discredit which they seemed to throw on the conventional ideas of the old school, which the dominating party of the time considered as a sort of Palladium.  Tired at least of the worries caused by his keen polemics, he preferred to go and settle with his family in Tuscany, without waiting for the political reaction which he had foreseen, and died at Florence 15th December 1853.  (See "Notice on the life and works of J A Galiffe" -- D'un siecle a l'autre Journal de Geneve 31st December 1853 -- Memoires de la Societe d'histoire et d'archeologie 1854 -- Les etudes genealogiques a Geneve, by Professor Ritter -- Histoire de Geneve, by Gaullieur.)

Married 1st, 20th October 1817, Elizabeth Philippine only daughter of No Jean Antoine de Claparede, President of the Civil Tribunal, and of Alexandrine-Jeanne-Antoinette Dunant died 18th April 1825.

2nd:   26th May 1827, Amelie Francoise, daughter of No: Charles Pictet, Honorary Councillor, plenipotentiary Minister of the Swiss Confederation at the Congress of Vienna, Paris and Turin, and of Sara de Rochemont, died at Florence 14th August 1872.

He had by the first:

(1)      Jean-Barthelemy, who follows:

(2)      Sophie Anne Marie Catherine, born 16th April 1825 god-daughter of Prince Pierre Andreiowitch Viasemsky, died at Florence 14th November 1841.  She showed remarkable dispositions for literature and music.

Jean (John) Barthelemy Gaifre Galiffe, born at Geneva 31st July 1818, godson of John Thellusson, Lord Rendlesham, of John Backhouse, Minister of Foreign Affairs London, and of Mme Thellusson-Ployard. -- Educated at the Fellenberg Institute, Hofwyl; Doctor of Law of the University of Heidelberg 1842, Mayor of the Commune of Satigny 1853-1858.  Deputy to the Grand Conseil (Legislative Council) 1854, professor of National history at the Academy of Geneva 1861-65, Consul 1866, and afterwards Consul-General for Denmark with the Swiss Confederation 1883 - represented that power at the 2nd Congress of the Red-Cross at Geneva 1868, and at the Congress of the Universal Postal Union at Berne 1875. - Member (active, honorary or corresponding) of nearly all the historical or archaeological societies of Switzerland, of the National Geneva Institute, of the Royal Committee of National History of Italy, of the Academy of Savoy, and of the Archaeological Society of the Rhenish Provinces, etc., etc., Knight of the Danish order of Danebrog, and of the Italian order of St. Maurice et Lazare.  Died 25th February 1890 - Following his father's footsteps he devoted the greater part of his life to studies of history, archaeology, genealogy and heraldry, in which his native country held the foremost part.  Expert as learned as he was exact and conscientious, he left a series of solid works the value of which is as much appreciated abroad as it is in Geneva, and he is justly entitled to be considered as one of the first, and possibly the best known of Geneva's National Historians.*

Married 1st:  7th April 1849, Gabrielle-Clementine, daughter of Edouard Odier and of Caroline de Thellusson died 28th October 1850.

2nd:  on 22nd September 1853, Jaqueline-Marianne Elizabeth, daughter of Spe Jean-Jaques Weber (of the Von Weber, of Schwytz) and of Marie Jaqueline Andrienne Pommier-des Gouttes.

*His principal works are: "Bezancon Hugues" history of the foundation of the independence of Geneva, 1859. - The "Armorial historique genevois, (1859-1862). - Quelques pages d'histoire exact (1862) Nouvelles pages d'histoire exacte (1863) Geneve historique et Archeologique (1869-1872) D'un siecle a l'autre (1877-78) Le Refuge Italien a Geneve (1881) Two Volumes of Genealogical Notices (1859-1866 and 1885) La Chaine Symbolique, (historical study of Free-Masonry 1852) La question et la polemique dano-allemandes (1866) the only French book on the subject.  Besides these he published in several reviews and periodicals, German and French, many works of minor importance, but equally appreciated, such as: Tell and Gessler, according to tradition and history (1878) Historical geography of the Canton of Geneva (1882) Les Allmenden (1885) Medailles militaires Suisses au XIX eme siecle (1885) Relation des evenements du 7th Octobre 1846 (1890), Le probleme de l'Eveche de Nyon (1890) "Geneve delivree", a comedy composed in 1662 by Chapuzean, and "Il sacco di Roma nel 1527" published in collaboration with the Elzevirian Printer Fick.  Excellent musician, very much appreciated in the artistic world by his profound knowledge of musical literature and of the old masters, he was also the author of a history of modern music, published in the Biblotheque Universelle 1857.
 


Thomas Somerville/ William Somerville/ Mary Fairfax Somerville

*§  WILLIAM SOMERVILLE/ SCOTLAND/ Somerville/ Guglielmo/ / Inghilterra/ Firenze/ 25 Luglio/ 1860/ Anni 87/ 703/ WILLIAM SOMERVILLE/ ELDEST SON OF THE HISTORIAN OF QUEEN ANNE/ BORN AT MINTO ROXBURGHSHIRE/ 22 APRIL 1771/ DIED AT FLORENCE 15 JUNE 1860/ GOD WILL REDEEM MY LIFE FROM/ THE POWER OF THE GRAVE 49 PSALM/ DNB, GL23777/1 N° 282 Burial 27/06, Rev O'Neill/ A11N(148)

 

[His father's death is noted in Bell's Weekly Messenger (No.1770, Sunday, February 28, 1830): 'We regret to learn that the Rev. Dr. Somerville, so eminently distinguished as the historian of Queen Anne, and for other valuable works, died at Jedburgh Manse, at a very advanced age, on Sunday last. The Rev. Doctor was the father of a Scottish church. He had assisted in the communion services in the church of his own parish on the Sabbath preceding, and apparently with no decrease of energy or zeal; but he was taken ill on the evening of that day, and continued to linger, peacefully waiting for his rest, till his departure, as we have said, on the Sabbath of the week following, much about the hour, of the evening when he was first taken ill.--At Jedburgh, on the 16th inst. after a few days illness, the Rev. Dr. SOMERVILLE, in the 90th year of his age, and the 63d in which he had discharged the active duties of a Minister.--Edinburgh paper'. British Library: Title:  The History of Great Britain during the reign of Queen Anne, with a dissertation concerning the danger of the Protestant Succession, and an appendix containing original papers. Author: SOMERVILLE. Thomas. D.D. Publication details:  pp. xxvii. 674. A. Strahan, etc.: London, 1798. 4o. Author of many other books including against slavery. William Somerville is husband of the Scottish mathematician and astronomer Mary Somerville who predicted the existence of Neptune and Pluto. Mary Somerville encouraged Ada Byron, Countess Lovelace (Lord Byron's daughter), in her pursuit of mathematics, Ada Byron and Charles Babbage creating the  modern computer. Mary Somerville's bust is honoured in the Royal Society of which she was a member. She is buried in Naples' Cimitero degli Inglesi. Somerville College, Oxford, is named after her.


 


Mary Young † 1867

* MARY (AUCRUM) YOUNG/ SCOTLAND/ Young nata Aucrum/ Vedova Maria/ Giovanni/ Inghilterra/ Firenze/ 27 Settembre/ 1867/ Anni 76/ 988/ +/ HOLD [Anchor] FAST/ TO THE MEMORY OF/ MARY YOUNG/ DAUGHTER OF THE LATE/ JOHN STROTHER ANCRUM OF ROXBURGH/ AND WIDOW OF THE REV. ROBERT YOUNG DD MINISTER OF THE/ SCOTS CHURCH LONDON WALL/ ENDOWED WITH SUPERIOR AND REFINED INTELLECT/ FIRM CHARACTER AND ARDENT AFFECTIONS/ SHE WAS BY GOD'S GRACE ENABLED TO SPEND HER WHOLE LIFE IN HIS SERVICE/ AND IN SE. . E . .ING EFFORTS FOR THE GOOD OF OTHERS/ HER FAITH WAS SIMPLE AND UNWAVERING/ SUPPORTED BY THIS FAITH AND CHEERED BY THE HOPE OF GLORY/ SHE ENDURED WITH FORTITUDE THE DECAY OF HER EARTHLY/ TABERNACLE AND JOYFULLY WELCOMED THE SUMMONS/ WHICH CALLED HER HENCE/ ON THE 27 DAY OF SEP 1867/ AGED 77/ AMEN. SO LET IT BE [Books and Palms]/
 

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/ QUI RIPOSANO LE SPOGLIE MORTALI/ DI / MARIA YOUNG/ VISSE MOLTI ANNI IN ITALIA/ RACCOLSE NEGLI ARCHIVI NOTIZIE STORICHE/ CON CUI COMPOSE UN LIBRO ASSAI STIMATO/ LA VITA DI AONIO PALEARIO E I SUOI TEMPI/ DIMORO LONGAMENTE IN PISA DOVE EDIFICO/ UNA CHIESA EVANGELICA E UNA SCUOLA/ SOCCORSE SEMPRE I POVERI AMO LO STUDIO E SI/ . . SE PER IL RISORGIMENTO DELLA LIBERTA ITALIANA/ MORIVA IN FIRENZE ALL'ETA DI 77 ANNI/ IL 27 SETTEMBRE 1867/ FRA LE BRACCIA DELLA INCONSOLABILE FIGLIA/ ALLA SUA CARA MEMORIA CONSACRONO QUESTA PIETRA/ CARLO E ROBINIA MATTEUCCI/ see Giuliana Artom Treves, The Golden Ring, pp. 121-3/ F4I

Antonio Della Paglia (Aonio Paleario), umanista, (Veroli 1503 - Roma 1570). Tra i maggiori sostenitori della Riforma luterana, fu più volte accusato di eresia; dopo la pubblicazione a Basilea delle sue opere (1567), condannato dall'Inquisizione romana, fu impiccato e arso. Nel poema De Animorum immortalitate (1536) confutò il materialismo lucreziano e negò l'esistenza del Purgatorio. Nell'Actio in Pontifices Romanos (postumo, 1606), polemizzò duramente contro i pontefici, accusati di respingere Cristo e di sostenere la legge e il dogma. Notevole anche l'orazione De laudibus eloquentiae (1546)./ Un’ultima testimonianza, Le convinzioni, le certezze e le speranze che avevano sostenuto tutto il suo cammino di discepolo di Cristo emergono nel suo ultimo scritto, la lettera che, poco prima di conoscere la morte atroce comminatagli dall’Inquisizione, indirizzò alla moglie:
     “Consorte mia carissima,
     non vorrei che tu pigliasse despiacere del mio piacere et a male il mio bene; è venuta l’ora che io passi di questa vita al mio Signore e Padre, e Dio; io vi vo tanto allegramente, quanto alle nozze del figlio del gran re, del che ho sempre pregato il mio Signore, che per la sua bontà e liberalità infinita mi conceda. Si che la mia consorte dilettissima, contentatevi della volontà di Dio, e del mio contento et attendete alla famigliola sbigottita che resterà, di allevarla e custodirla col timore di Dio et esserli madre e padre. Io ero già di 70 anni vecchio e disutile. Bisogna che i figli colla virtù, e col sudore, si sforzino onoratamente. Dio Padre et il Signor nostro Giesù Cristo et la comunione dello Spirito Santo sia collo spirito vostro. Di Roma il dì 3 di luglio 1570.
Tuo marito Aonio Paleari"
     All’alba di quel giorno si interruppe il cammino terreno di Aonio Paleario, ma non si interruppe la lunga catena di uomini e donne di Dio pronti a difendere e a diffondere l’Evangelo. Nella prima metà dell’800 a Firenze alcuni intellettuali, fra i quali il conte Piero Guicciardini, ma anche tante persone di più umili condizioni sociali, cominciarono a incontrarsi di nascosto per leggere e meditare la Bibbia. Molti di loro, una volta scoperti, pagarono con la prigionia e con l’esilio questa loro scelta di fede.
     Fu proprio il conte Piero Guicciardini a ridare degna memoria al Paleario sia in Toscana che in Italia.
     Infatti quando il Guicciardini venne a sapere che non molto lontano dalla sua Cusona, la tenuta di famiglia in comune di Poggibonsi nel cui piccolo cimitero è ora sepolto, si trovava la villa di Cecignano dove aveva vissuto il Paleario, vi si recò con il fratello Luigi e vi trovò, sepolta dal fango vicino ad una fontana, una targa di marmo recante il nome di Aonio.
     Questa targa la portò con sé per collocarla nel giardino del palazzo di famiglia a Firenze, ponendovi la scritta:
     “Questa iscrizione dato nome al fonte di Aonio Paleario dimenticata e sepolta per tre secoli nella collina di Cercignano presso Colle Val d’Elsa ritrovata dai fratelli P. e L. de’ Guicciardini nel 1842 ad onore di queste acque fu posta monumento all’illustre e infelice poeta filosofo letterato e martire della fede”.
     Dal Paleario, attraverso il Guicciardini, vi è un filo che lega la storia della sua vita e della sua testimonianza a quella di comunità locali, come le nostre, che desiderano camminare avendo a cuore l’obiettivo di onorare il Signore, attraverso una fedele sottomissione alla sua Parola ed un impegno costante rivolto alla difesa e al progresso del Vangelo./ F4I
[See Biblioteca e Bottega Fioretta Mazzei acquisitions for Volume I of her book, Aonio Paleario and His Times, 1860]

Daniel Willard Fiske † 1904

Dott.ssa Kristín Bragadóttir, Head of Preservation Section, National Library, Reykjavik, ‘Daniel Willard Fiske, Florentine American Icelandicist’  ‘Daniel Willard Fiske, americano a Firenze, studioso di letteratura islandese’  kristbra@loki.bok.hi.is
 


Adolfo Mussafia † 1905

§ ADOLFO MUSSAFIA/ TRIESTE?/ [Portrait Medallion]/ ADOLFO MVSSAFIA/ N. A SPALATO, 1834/ M. A FIRENZE IL 7 GIVGNO 1905 / LA MOGLIE INCONSOLATA  D28I
REGINA MUSSAFIA/GERMANIA / DELLA VEDOVA REGINA MVSSAFIA MORTA A VIENNA IL XV MARZO MDCCCCXV. QVI PER SVO VOLERE FVRONO DEPOSTE LE CENERI IL SESSEGUENTE XI APRILE/ 2011/ D28I

   Mussafia tomb to left

 
Filologo dalmata, per quasi mezzo secolo professore all’Università di Vienna, maestro di quanti, nel periodo dell’attesa, nelle scuole di Trieste infiammarono i giovani all’amore per l’Italia, e che al Parlamento austriaco difese sempre i diritti delle mínoranza italiane dell’Austria

Presso l'Universita di Firenze vi è il "Il fondo Mussafia", raccolto in una quindicina di contenitori e dapprima depositato presso l'Università di Vienna, fu donato all'Istituto nel 1925 da Pio Rajna, che lo aveva ricevuto in legato dalla vedova di Mussafia. Comprende un carteggio, manoscritti, testi di conferenze, lezioni, discorsi, ritagli di giornali, atti e documenti vari. Gli argomenti riguardano l'italianistica, la linguistica, la filologia romanza.
 



Linda Villari, †1915, Pasquale Villari, † 1917
 

Linda Villari (née Mazini), an author, died in 1915. Publications: In the Golden Shell. A story of Palermo (London, 1872); In Change unchanged (2 volumes, London, 1877); Camilla's Girlhood (T Fisher Unwin, London, 1885); On Tuscan Hills and Venetian Waters (T Fisher Unwin, London, 1885); When I was a child; or, Left behind (T F Unwin, London, 1885); Here and there in Italy and over the Border (W H Allen & Co, London, 1893); Oswald von Wolkenstein. A memoir of the last Minnesinger of Tirol (J M Dent & Co, London, 1901). Translated: Pasquale Villari's Niccolo Machiavelli and his times (2 volumes, London, 1878); MoÌr Joikai, Life in a Cave, from the Hungarian (W Swan Sonnenschein & Co, London, [1884]); Pasquale Villari's Life and times of Girolamo Savonarola (2nd edition, 2 volumes, T Fisher Unwin, London, 1889); Pasquale Villari's The Two First Centuries of Florentine History (2 volumes, T Fisher Unwin, London, 1894-1895); HRH Prince Luigi Amedeo di Savoia, Duke of the Abruzzi, The Ascent of Mount St Elias, Alaska (A Constable & Co, Westminster, 1900); Pasquale Villari's The Barbarian Invasions of Italy (T Fisher Unwin, London, 1902); Pasquale Villari's Studies, Historical and Critical (T Fisher Unwin, London, 1907).
 

Pasquale Villari (1827-1917), Italian historian and statesman, was born at Naples on the 3rd of October 1827. He studied together with Luigi la Vista under Francesco de Sanctis. He was implicated in the riots of the 1st of May 1848 at Naples, against the Bourbon government, and had to take refuge in Florence. There he devoted himself to teaching and historical research in the public libraries, and in 1859 he published the first volume of his Storia di Girolamo Savonarola e de' suoi tempi, in consequence of which he was appointed professor of history at Pisa. A second volume appeared in 1861, and the work, which soon came to be recognized as an Italian classic, was translated into various foreign languages. It was followed by a work of even greater critical value, Niccold Machiavelli e i suoi tempi (1877-82). In the meanwhile Villari had left Pisa and was transferred to.the chair of philosophy of history at the Institute of Studii Superiori in Florence, and he was also appointed a member of the council of education (1862). He served as a juror at the international exhibition of that year in London, and contributed an important monograph on education in England and Scotland. In 1869 he was appointed under-secretary of state for education, and shortly afterwards was elected member of parliament, a position which he held for several years. In 1884 he was nominated senator, and in 1891-92 he was minister of education in the Marchese di Rudini's first cabinet. In 1893-94 he collected a number of essays on Florentine history, originally published in the Nuoiia Antologia, under the title of I primi due secoli della storia di Firenze, and in 1901 he produced Le Invasioni barbariche in Italia, a popular account in one volume of the events following the dissolution of the Roman empire. All 'these works have been translated into English by the historian's wife, Linda White Villari. Another side of Villari's activity was his interest in the political and social problems of the day; and although never identified with any political party, his speeches and writings have always commanded considerable public attention.
Among his other literary works may be mentioned: Saggi Critici (1868); Arte, Storia, e Filosofia (Florence, 1884); Scritti i-arii (Bologna, 1894); another volume of Saggi Gri'ici (Bologna, 1896); and a volume of Discussioni critiche e discorsi (Bologna, 1905), containing his speeches as president of the Dante Alighieri Society. His most important political and social essays are collected in his Lettere Meridionali ed altri scritti sulla questione sociale in Italia (Turin, 1885), and Scritti svlla questione sociale in Italia (Florence,'1902). The Lettere Meridionali (originally published in the newspaper L'Opinione in 1875) produced a deep impression, as they were the first exposure of the real conditions of southern Italy. A selection of Villari's essays, translated by his wife, has been published in England (1907).



Elena Raffaelovic Comparetti † 1918, Domenico Comparetti † 1927

^*°§ ELENA RAFALOVIC COMPARETTI/ RUSSIA/ITALY/ [Comparetti/ Elena/ /Italia/ Firenze/ 29 Novembre/ 1918/ / 760 Later Hand]/ ELENA COMPARETTI/ RAFFALOVICH/ ODESSA 1842/ FIRENZE 1918/ [Wife to prof. Domenico Comparetti, °=Valeria Milani Comparetti, Firenze; Talalay:Odessa 1842-1918;feminista, pedagoga, figlia del banchiere Lev Anisimovic Rafalovic e di Elena Jakovlevna Poljakova, moglie del filologo pisano Domenico Comparetti; nel Cimitero algo Allori si trova la tomba della moglie dello suo zio Rafalovic Ljubov' Samojlovna/1825-1883, HII11; Bibl.: Storia di Elena, a cura di E. Frontali Montali, Torino, La Rosa, 1980; M.A. Manacorda, 'La breve illusione pedagogica di Elena Comparetti' in L'educazione delle donne: Scuola e modello di vita femminile nell'Italia dell'800, a cura di S. Soldoni, Milano, Angeli, 1989] C28L
 


Robert Davidsohn † 1937

° PHILIPPINE (COLLOT) DAVIDSOHN/ GERMANIA? / 2024/ PHILIPPINE COLLOT/ VED. DAVIDSOHN/ 1847-1947/ 2024/ D21G [°=Prof. Tim A. Osswald, University of Wisconsin Madison]
°§ ROBERT DAVIDSOHN/ GERMANIA / 2024/ COMM. DOTT. PROF./ ROBERT DAVIDSOHN/ 26.4.1853-17.9.1937/ D21G [°=Prof. Tim A. Osswald, University of Wisconsin Madison]
[See Biblioteca e Bottega Fioretta Mazzei acquisitions]

  

ROBERT DAVIDSOHN (1853-1937) , his cinerary urn is near the upper boundary of the cemetery, with a few other urns accepted after it was closed. Born in Gdansk and intending to become a journalist, he came to Florence with a two-fold vocation, for the Latin world and the study of history. After an exploration of the Spanish world, he dedicated all his energy to the history of Florence: between 1896 and 1908, he published the impressive results of his research into the archives, and in 1927 completed his fundamental work on the history of Florence. Thus his place in the heart of the city he loved and served with his labours takes on significance as a gesture of gratitude. LS
 

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