Notes to Susan and Joanna Horner, Walks in Florence

1 Catiline's general was long encamped near Fiesole.  See Cicero, Speech i., and Sallust.
2 Tierce or none – Tierce (Terza) is the first division of the Canonical Day – six to nine; Nones (None) the third, from twelve to three in the afternoon.  The bells of the Badia rang these hours, and they measured the day. – See Longfellow's Dante.

 Florence, within her ancient boundary,
  From which she taketh still her Tierce and Nones,
  Abode in quiet, temperate and chaste.
 No golden chain she had, nor coronal,
  Nor ladies shod with sandal shoon, nor girdle
  That caught the eye more than the person did.
 Nor yet surpassed had Montemalo been
  By your Uccellatojo, which surpassed
  Shall in its downfall be, as in its rise.
   Longfellow's Translation.
So likewise did the ancestors of those
 Who evermore when vacant is your church
 Fatten by staying in consistory.
   Longfellow's Translation.
  I'll tell thee a thing incredible but true:
  One entered the small circuit by a gate
  Which from the della Pera took its name."
   Longfellow's Translation.
6 See Captain Henry Napier's "Florentine History."
7 The Order of the Camaldoli was a branch of the Benedictines, founded by San Romualdo in 1077, with the idea of reforming the lives of the Benedictines.  The parent monastery is situated in the Apennines in the Casentino, and the name Camaldoli was derived from the land on which it was built, Campo-Maldoli – Field of Maldoli.  See "Legends of Monastic Orders," by Mrs. Jameson.
8 See Notes by Count Luigi Passerini to the romance of "Marietta de' Ricci," by Agostino Ademollo.
9 A braccia is nearly twenty-three inches.
10 A new façade has been commenced this year (1872).  [Handwritten comment by this book's owner, Ellen Orton, says: "The scaffolding was still up and the façade covered by canvas in 1880 when I was last in Florence.]
11 For an account of this queen's romantic marriage, see Muratori, "Scriptores ital.;" aus des "Paulus Diakonus Geschichte der Longbarden," iii buch, p. 66, ?bersetzt von Dr. Otto Abel; aus die "Geschicht-schreiber des Deutschen Vorzeit, in Deutsche Bearbeitung herausgegeben," von G. H. Pertz, J. Grimm, K. Lachmann, L. Ranke, K. Ritter.
12 See Lord Lindsay's "Christian Art," vol. i. p. 32.
13 Beneath the arcade of the Cortile of the Bargello are the arms of the Sestiere and Quartiere of the City.  In the arms of the Quartiere of San Giovanni, as well as in those of the Duomo, the Baptistery is represented as it then appeared.
14 This story of Bocaccio is thus explained in a Florentine treatise on the game of calcio (foot-ball), published in 1688.
15 Arnolfo di Cambio, or Lapo, was the son of one Cambio of Colle, a city south of Florence, and the pupil of Lapo, an architect probably from the Valteline.  Lapo introduced a German element in the style of Italian buildings.  He built the Castle of the Counts Guidi at Poppi in the Casentino, and subsequently the Palazzo del Podestà or Bargello of Florence; also the Church of San Francesco at Assisi. - See Vasari, latest edition, with notes by the Cavaliere Milanesi:  Arnolfo di Lapo.
16 List of subjects on the Southern Gates, executed by Andrea Pisano:
1. The Angel announces the birth of the Baptist to Zacharias.
2. Zacharias struck dumb.
3. The visitation of Elizabeth to Mary.
4. Birth of John the Baptist.
5. Zacharias writes the name, John.
6. John departs for the Wilderness.
7. John preaches to the Pharisees.
8. John preaches to the people.
9. John baptizes in the Jordan.
10. Baptism of our Saviour.
11. John reproves Herod.
12. John led to prison.
13. John questioned by the Jews.
14. John announces the Advent of Christ.
15. The daughter of Herodias asks for John's head.
16. The beheadal of John.
17. Herod at supper receives the head of John.
18. The daughter of Herodias presents John's head to her mother.
19. The disciples obtain the head of John.
20. The disciples bury the body.
17 List of subjects on the Northern Gates, by Lorenzo Ghiberti:
1. The Annunciation
2. The Birth of the Saviour
3. The Adoration of the Magi
4. The Dispute with the Doctors
5. John baptizing the Saviour
6. The Temptation
7. Christ drives the sellers from the Temple
8. The Apostles on the Lake
9. The Transfiguration
10. The Raising of Lazarus
11. The Entrance into Jerusalem
12. The Supper with the Apostles
13. The Garden of Gethsemane
14. Judas kissing Jesus
15. Christ bound to the Pillar
16. Christ before Pilate
17. Christ bearing his Cross
18. The Crucifixion
19. The Resurrection
20. The Descent of the Holy Ghost
18 List of subjects on the Eastern Gates, by Lorenzo Ghiberti: -
1. Creation of Adam and Eve
2. History of Cain and Abel
3. Noah
4. Abraham and Isaac
5. Jacob and Esau
6. History of Joseph
7. Moses on Mount Sinai
8. Joshua before Jericho
9. David and Goliath
10. Solomon and the Queen of Sheba
19 Sir Charles Eastlake's "Literature of the Fine Arts."
Pisa spoiled the columns with fire,
Hence Florentines were called blind.
21 These have all been recently removed.
Ah! Angels and Archangels with Thrones,
Cherubim, Seraphim and Princedoms,
Virtues, Powers and Dominations,
Ye who are nearest my Lord;
Pray to him that I may find favour
To pursue that which I have begun
To his praise, salutation and reverence;
And to the peace and honour of the Commune of Florence.
23 See "History of Christian Art" by Lord Lindsay.
To me less ample seemed they not, nor greater
Than those that in my beautiful St. John
Are fashioned for the Place of the Baptizers,
And one of which, not many years ago,
I broke for some one, who was drowning in it.
Be this a seal, all men to undeceive.
  Longfellow's Translation.
25 See "Storia Fiorentina di Dino Compagni," lib. Ii. P. 33.  Fir., 1728.
26 Arnolfo di Cambio is sometimes confounded with Arnolfo de' Lapi, who repaired the Baptistery.
27 San Michele Visdomini, Vià de' Servi.  See Introduction, part ii.
28 See Crowe and Cavalcaselle, "History of Italian Painting," vol. Iii. P. 185.  Cavalcaselle cites Ces. Guasti, "Archivio Storico, Nuova Serie," vol. Xvii., part i.  Florence, 1863.
29 Some of these statues of very mediocre merit, are at the foot of the avenue leading to the Poggio Imperiale, outside the Porta Romana; others are in the Cortile or Court of the Riccardi Palace, and others in the Bargello.  The statue of Boniface VIII., under whose auspices the cathedral was founded, is preserved in the Orto Rucellai or Oricellai, gardens once frequented by the Medici and the members of the Platonic Academy.
30 See "Handbook of Architecture," by James Fergusson, vol. ii. p. 739.
31 See "Legendary Art," by Mrs. Jameson, p. 12.
32 The bear is the badge of the kings of Spain.  It is possible that some scion of the royal house had contributed to the expense of this part of the Cathedral.
33 See "History of Italian Art."  Crowe and Cavalcaselle.  Vol. ii.  p. 189.
34 See "Donatello, seine Zeit und Schule," by Dr. Hans Semper, p. 24
35 Ibid., p. 12
36 Ibid., p. 23.
37 The mole cricket, an insect well known in Italy.  A custom exists of catching them on Ascension Day, and confining them in little reed cages.  They are supposed to be typical of human life, and that the longer the grilli can be kept alive, the longer will be the life of its owner.  The custom dates from old Etruscan and Greek times.  The reed cages are figured on the walls of Pompeian houses, and the Sicilian Greek poet, Theocritus, alludes to them.  Annually still, on Ascension Day, whole families may be seen flocking to the Cascine at Florence, and after securing their prisoners, they sit down on the grass and partake of the merenda or luncheon.
38 See "Annals of St. Paul's," by the Rev. H. H. Milman, late dean of St. Paul's.
39 See Harford's "Life of Michael Angelo," vol. ii. p. 91: -
 I will maker sister dome
 Larger; yes, but not more beautiful.
40 See Lord Lindsay's "Christian Art," vol. ii. p. 250.  The subjects are -
Western Face. - First stage of society, patriarchal.
1. Creation of Adam.  2. Creation of Eve.  3. Adam delving and Eve spinning.  4. Tubal, the father of such as dwelt in tents, and such as have cattle, sitting at the door of his tent, his sheep around him, accompanied by his watch-dog.  5. Tubal, the inventor of the harp and organ.  6. Tubal Cain, the instructor of every artificer in brass and iron.  7. Noah intoxicated.
Southern Face. - Second stage of society.  The state or nation.
1. Astronomy.  2. Housebuilding.  3. The invention of pottery and medicine.  4. A man on horseback, typical of the energy of the male sex.  5. A woman weaving, expressive of female domesticity.  6. Legislation.  An old man, seated in a raised niche, delivering a book of laws to a man kneeling before him; two others sit to the right and left as his assessors.  7. Dædalus flying to typify the dispersion of nations.
Eastern Face. - Discovery and subdual of the East, with the introduction of the new law of Christianity.
1.  Colonisation, represented by three figures in a boat rowing.  2. Hercules with his club, standing over Antæus dead at his feet, indicating subduing the earth.  3. A man ploughing with oxen, representing agriculture.  4. A man in a waggon or chariot, perhaps to express extreme earthly prosperity and luxury.  5. The lamb bearing the cross.  [The last on this face, and remainder on northern face, represent development of imagination and reason.]  6. Architecture by Giotto.  An old man at a desk holding a pair of compasses.
Northern Face. -
 1. Sculpture by Giotto.  2.  Painting.  3. Grammar.  4. Philosophy.  5. Poetry.  6. The exact sciences.  7. Music.  An old man deducing the laws of harmony by listening to the sounds of a bar of iron, as he strikes it with a hammer.  Most of the are early compositions by Luca della Robbia.
41 See James Fergusson's "Handbook of Architecture," vol. ii. p. 789.
42 See "Seven Lamps of Architecture," by John Ruskin.  "The Lamp of Beauty."
43 This portrait was originally executed in fresco, but has since been transferred to canvas, in which operation it sustained much damage.  See Crowe and Cavalcaselle, vol. ii. p. 291.
44 See Crowe and Cavalcaselle.
45 Henry died near Sienna, and his body was carried to Pisa, where this same Tino di Camaino was commissioned to make his monument.
46 See the observations of Mr. John Bell, a brother of the celebrated anatomist, Sir Charles Bell.  Mr. Bell was, during his short life, hardly less remarkable for genius than his brother.  "Observations on Italy," by the late John Bell.  1825.
Georgin, Georgin, you ought to be accused -
Giorgin committed the sin,
Presumptuously he was the first
To paint the cupola;
And the Florentine people
Will never cease to mourn
Until perhaps some day it may be covered with whitewash.
48 See "Marietta de' Ricci," note by Luigi Passerini, vol. iii. p. 964; and "Tuscan Sculptors," by C. Perkins, vol. iii. p 211.
49 See Vasari, "Vite dei Pittori," vol. v. pp. 166-170.
50 In order to obtain leave to see these choral books, application must be made to the Director of the Opera del Duomo.
51 One of these banners is still preserved in the Sacristy of Sta. Maria Novella.
52 See "Curiosità Storico Artistiche Fiorentine," by Luigi Passerini.
53 This fresco, besides those which still remain outside the building, is generally attributed to Pietro Chellini; this belief arose from a passage in the "Archives of the Commissary," lib. X. p. 8.  But Count Luigi Passerini considers this an error, and that the only paintings which can in reality be attributed to Chellini are the decorations round the elegant windows above the Loggia and Oratory.  (See "Curisoità Storico Artistiche Fiorentine.")
54 See Mrs. Jameson, "Sacred and Legendary Art."
55 During a period of bad taste, the arches of the Loggia were filled in with brick and mortar; and it was due to the praiseworthy exertions of the late Marchese Paolo Feroni, Director of the Uffizi Gallery, and president of the Fine Arts in Florence, that this building was restored to its original condition, and that many other improvements, or rather restorations, were effected.
56 The Marchese Carlo Torrigiani died on the 11th of April, 1865, at the age of fifty-four, after a short illness, contracted while fulfilling his duty as a Giornante of the Misericordia.
57 "Il Diavolo e il Vento," Ballata di F. dall' Ongaro.
58 See Napier's "Florentine History," vol. ii. pp. 385, 386.0
59 Ugo della Stufa was Gonfalonier of Florence during the plague, 1417-1420.  The name appears to have been derived from the stoves for heating the Baths, which in Roman times were supplied with water from the Mugnone, whit its course lay in this direction.
60 See "Tuscan Sculptors," by Charles Perkins, vol. iii. p. 154.
61 "Esortazione alla Virginità."
62 His history is beautifully related by Mrs. Jameson in her "Legendary Art," p. 320.
63 Not the church attached to the Archbishop's Palace in the Piazza dell' Olio, but that which formerly existed on the site of the present Cathedral, as mentioned in a preceding chapter.
64 Now Villa Sloane, lately the property of the deceased Cavaliere Francis Sloane, whose munificent contributions for the erection of the façade of Santa Croce have entitled him to the gratitude of Florentine citizens.
65 The story of the destruction of San Lorenzo by fire in 1423 is not authentic.
66 Giovanni de' Bicci, son of Salvestro dei Medici, and descended from Giovanni di Bernardino dei Medici, who managed the purchase of Lucca from Mastino della Scala.  (See chapter on Piazza del Duomo.)
67 There is a monumental slab to the memory of Rustico Marignolli near the entrance to the cloister from the Piazza, with the date 1249.  Rustico belonged to the Guelphic party, and fell in battle with the Ghibellines, who were led by a natural son of the Emperor Frederic II.  (See Gino Capponi, "Storia della Republica di Firenze.")
68 These reliquaries are now in the gem-room of the Uffizi Gallery.
69 See "Savonarola and His Times," by Pasquale Villari, translated from the Italian by Leonard Horner, vol. ii. p. 132.
70 See Cicognara, "Stor. Del Scult.," lib. v. cap. iii.
71 See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. iii. p. 348.
72 "Christian Art," Lord Lindsay, vol. ii. p. 302.
73 See "Legendary Art," Mrs. Jameson.  "Legend of St. Nicholas."
74 The subjects on these ambones are as follows, commencing with the ambone on the southern side of the nave, and proceeding from left to right:  - Christ before Pilate; Christ before Caiaphas;  Crucifixion and Descent from the Cross; the Entombment; the Flagellation - St. John; the Agony in the Garden.  Northern ambone: - Descent of the Holy Spirit; A Combat; St. Luke - Christ mocked; the Marys at the Door of the Sepulchre; the Descent into Limbo; the Resurrection; the Appearance to Mary and the Apostles.
75 Mr. Charles Heath Wilson, who was present, from whom we have received these details, remarked that one of the cheek-bones of Alessandro bore traces of a stab - a further confirmation that the skeleton belonged to the murdered man.  This discovery attests the correctness of Vasari's statement.  (See "Vite dei Pittori," vol. xii. p. 208.)
Night in so sweet an attitude beheld
Asleep, was by an angel sculptured
In this stone; and sleeping, is alive;
Waken her, doubter; she will speak to thee.
Welcome is sleep, more welcome sleep of stone
Whilst crime and shame continue in the land;
My happy fortune, not to see or hear;
Waken me not - in mercy, whisper low.
78 See "Tuscan Sculptors,"; vol. ii. p. 98.
79 See "Notizie Storiche dei Lavori in Pietra Dura da Antonio Zobi."  Firenze, 1853.
80 See "Gius Pubblico Popolare dei Toscani," by the Cavaliere Commendatore S. Peruzzi.
81 See Champfleury, "Les Chats, Histoire, Mœurs, Observations," p. 19.
82 See Bargello, part ii. p. 248, and "Life of Michael Angelo," by Charles Heath Wilson, p. 306.
83 See Vasari's "Lives of the Painters," vol. vi. Pp. 164, 246.
84 Vasari's "Lives of the Painters," vol. vi. P. 258.  The visitor to the Laurentian Library is advised to take with him the sixth volume of Vasari's work, where he will find a catalogue of the illuminated works, p. 243.
85 See "Firenze ed Banchieri Fiorentini," by S. Peruzzi.
The Old Market provides food for all the world,
And carries off the prize from every other piazza.
 Such is the grandeur of this market
 That it has four churches at the four corners,
 And at every corner are two streets.
Physicians dwelt around for every ill,
And here were linen cloths, and flax merchants,
Pork vendors, and apothecaries.
And here in my opinion is the finest market
For the best meat.
 Here on one side are the poulterers
 Well furnished at all seasons
 With hares, and boars, and kids,
 With pheasants, starlings, pigeons,
 And all other birds.
 And here is always the great exchanges,
 And many money-changers may be counted,
 Since their merchandise is most demanded;
 Such as lenders and dealers in old articles,
 Tables of ready-money, and dice-players,
Of every sort, that each may carry on his trade.
 There never was so noble a garden
 As that presented by the old market,
 Which feasts the eyes and taste of the Florentines.
93 Three new markets are already designed, and in the process of erection, so that in the course of a few years this old market-place, with its historical reminiscences, may be destroyed.
94 See Chapter on the Baptistery.
And him of Nerli, and him of Vecchio,
Contented with their simple suits of buff;
And with their spindle and the flax, the dames.
In those ancient days the great families were satisfied with a simple attire, and wore their leathern jerkins without scarlet or cloth cloaks over them.
 The eleventh, the dealers in second-hand articles and
 The flaxen-cloth sellers
 Who together make one art.
97 See "Florentine History," by Captain Henry Napier, vol. iv. pp. 434-439.
98 See "Florentine History," by Capt. H. Napier, vol. v. pp. 11,12.
The horrible fire broke forth, and destroyed, advancing hither;
But the Holy Image was able to stay it at this spot.
100 See "Latin Christianity," H. H. Milman, vol. iii. p 436.  Also vol. i. chap. xiii. of this work.
101 The Della Lunas were originally apothecaries, and took their name from the emblem of the apothecaries.  They were among the first families, and had their dwellings round a piazzetta in the Mercato Vecchio.
102 See "Storia della Pittura."
103 This information has been derived from a memoir written by the Venetian poet Tommaseo, once a contributor to the Anthologia, and the author of the obnoxious article on Pausanias.
104 See chapter on Baptistery.
105 See chapter vi., Piazza del Duomo.
106 A Lombard convent in the Modenese territory, to which Charlemagne contributed.  See "Opere di Tiraboschi."
107 San Piero Scheraggio, the second largest church in Florence, which formerly existed on the site of the present Gallery of Uffizi.
108 Gonfalonier, literally standard-bearer, an important office during the Republic, equivalent to mayor or chief magistrate of the city, and still in use.
109 The gate of Sta. Maria, Por San Maria, in the district inhabited by the Guild of Silk.
110 The Director of the Fine Arts in Florence (1870) proposes to place a copy of Donatello's St. George in the niche to which the statue properly belongs, and to remove the original for safety to the Museum of the Bargello.
111 See "History of Painting in Italy," by Crowe and Cavalcaselle, vol. ii. chap. x. p. 280.
112 See "Tuscan Sculptors," by Charles Perkins.  Appendix to chap. v.
113 See Vasari, "Vite dei Pittori," vol. iii. p. 38, and "Donatello, seine Zeit und Schule," by Dr. Hans Semper. 1870.
114 This statue was recently removed for the second time to the niche of the Apothecaries, on the southern front.
115 The name beccaio, for "butcher," is probably derived from the kid - becco, - "goat" - being the meat chiefly eaten in those times.
116 See Napier's "Florentine History," vol. iv. p. 49.
117 The Casentino, a district situated near the source of the Arno.  A picture of the Madonna and Saints by this master still exists in San Tommaso, Mercato Vecchio.  See preceding chapter.
118 This relief is supposed to represent the angel warning Mary to fly into Egypt; but the aged appearance of the Virgin makes this explanation impossible.
119 The original poem may be read in the National Library.
120 "Tamburo of the Esecutore," a box to receive public accusations.
121 See Mr. John Bell's "Notes on Italy."
122 This bust is now preserved in the Museum of the Bargello.
123 See "Vita di Benvenuto," 8vo., vol. i. p. 279.
124 The corner of the Via de' Banchi and the Via Panzani.
125 The Infangati, a Ghibelline family allied with the Uberti, whose houses stood on the opposite of the piazza.  The reader will recollect that Mangia degli Infangati suffered death with one of the Uberti in the garden of San Michele.
126 See Mr. John Bell's "Notes on Italy."
127 Henrietta Louisa, Countess of Pomfret, and Frances, Countess of Hertford, were ladies of the bedchamber to Queen Caroline, wife of George II.
128 The Accademia della Crusca now has its meetings in the Convent of San Marco.
129 "Vita di Benvenuto Cellini," vol. ii. p. 246. 8vo.
130 In the Royal Library of Berlin, there is another copy of the "Greek Anthology," the first of four works printed in Florence with Greek capitals.  This collection of Greek poetry was made by a physician at Urbino, and the copy now in Berlin was once in the possession of Lorenzo de' Medici.
131 See Introductory Chapter, Part II.
132 See Napier's "Florentine History," vol. i. p. 30.
133 The Palazzo Vecchio appears in the compartment of the fresco where Honorius grants the rules of the Order to St. Francis.
134 See preceding chapter, p. 230.
135 See Life of St. Barbara, "Legendary Art," by Mrs. Jameson.
136 See Macchiavelli, "Storie Fiorentine," lib. Quart., p. 200; also "The History of the Commonwealth of Florence," by T. A. Trollope, vol. iii. p. 62.
137 See "Curiosità Storico Artistiche Fiorentine," del Conte Luigi Passerini.
138 Ringhiera, or "rostrum," a word derived from arringara - "to harrangue."
139 See illustration at the beginning of this chapter.
140 In the Sala del Orologio, within the Palazzo Vecchio, there is a grotesque Marzocco, a cast of an old monument, in which the lion's paw rests on a human head.  At Cutigliano, a small town in the Apennines, above Pistoia, there is an equally grotesque Marzocco on a pillar in front of the town-hall; the lion's paw in this monument also rests on a human head.
 I bear a crown worthy of my country,
 In order that all should maintain liberty.
142 The wax model, the design for this statue, is preserved in his house, Casa Buonarotti, Via Ghibellina.
143 See Harford's "Life of Michael Angelo," vol. i. p. 224.
144 This statue has been removed to the Academy.
145 See page 130.
146 See Rumohr, "Ricerche Italiane," vol. ii. pp. 303, 304.
147 This orrery is now in the Museum of Natural Science in the Via Romana.
148 The gnomon in the Cathedral and the astrolabe on the façade of Sta. Maria Novella are also by Fra Ignazio Danti.
149 Gerard Mercator was born in the Low Countries in 1512, and died at Guisburg in 1594, where a monument has been recently erected to his memory.
150 Vasari mentions some lovely putti supporting festoons, and a statue of the youthful St. John in the centre, none of which remain in their original position.  No traces remain of the putti; but a small St. John in the Uffizi Gallery, which has been attributed to Donatello, has been lately recognised as the work of Benedetto da Majano, and appears to be the missing statue.  Vasari, vol. v. p. 130.
151 See Vasari, "Vite dei Pittori," vol. v. p. 135.
152 See former chapter, Or San Michele.
153 See Gem Room, Uffizi Gallery.
154 For this story, see chap. ii. on Baptistery.
155 This picture is now in the Gallery of the Uffizi.
156 See "Or San Michele," chap. xii.
157 See "Cicerone" of Burkhardt, p. 60.
158 See illustration at the beginning of this chapter.
159 See "Piazza del Duomo e del Battisterio," chap. vi.
160 The true history of the Pazzi differs from the tradition.  One Pazzo or Paccio (abbreviations of Jacopo) Ganieri led the Tuscan contingent in the Second Crusade, and gained possession of Damietta, for which feat he and his descendants were allowed a mural crown in their coat of arms.
161 See "Cavalcaselle," vol. iii. p. 500.
 Each one that bears the beautiful escutcheon
 Of the great Baron, whose renown and name
 The festival of Thomas keepeth fresh.
   Longfellow's Translation.
163 Florentine churches are seldom placed east and west.
164 This has been removed and placed over the entrance to the Badia.  See anti, p. 309.
165 The portrait of Bernardo del Nero, by Leonardo da Vinci, is in the Torrigiani Gallery.
166 See "Storia della Republica di Firenze di Gino Capponi," vol. ii. p. 233.
167 See "Or San Michele," chap. xii. vol. i.
"If thou shouldst questioned be, who else was there,
 Thou hast beside thee him of Beccaria,
 Of whom the gorget Florence slit asunder."
   Longfellow's Translation.
"As on the right hand to ascend the mount
 Where seated is the Church that lordeth
 O'er the well-guided, above the Rubaconte."
   Longfellow's Translation
170 These houses were demolished in order to widen the bridge, and the chapel was transferred to one of the adjoining houses of the Alberti.
171 See "Discorso sopra il Giuoco di Calcio - Memoria del Calcio."  Fiorentino, 1688.
172 This flood is recorded in a Latin inscription on a tablet on the Ponte Vecchio.
173 Cardinal Matteo d' Acquasparta is mentioned by Dante in his "Paradiso," as having relaxed some of the severities of the Franciscan Order. - Paradiso, canto xii. v. 124.
174 This church is known as Michael Angelo's Bella Villanella, from its simplicity and beautiful proportions.  The design was by Cronaca; but as he was only eleven years of age when Quaratesi died - 1466 - San Salvador was not built until many years after the death of the founder.
175 The Commendatore Françesco Sloane, an active and generous benefactor of Florence, died at his villa of Careggi, October, 1871.
176 See "Cicerone von Jacob Burkhardt," 1860, p. 143.
177 "Purgatorio," canto ix., v. 134.
178 See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. ii. p. 53.
179 In the Bargello is a fine bust of Pietro Mellini by Benedetto da Majano.
180 See life of this saint in Mrs. Jameson's "Monastic Orders."
181 See Vasari, "Vite dei Pittori - Donatello."
182 See "I Poeti Italiani Moderni," with English Notes and Biographical Notices, by Louisa A. Merivale, pp. 1-3.
"And to these marbles
 Vittorio often came to be inspired;
 Irate with all his country's gods, he wandered mute
 Where most deserted in the Arno,
 With longing eyes beholding land and sky;
 And when no living sight could soothe his care,
 Here the austere man rested, and on his face was seen
 The palour of death and hope.
 With these great spirits he immortal dwells'
 The patriot's ardour vibrates in his bones."
 When I beheld
 Where rests the body of that great man
 Who, humbling the pride of rulers,
 Strips of their leaves their laurels, and reveals
 The tears and blood which drop from them," &c.
 185  "Italy, Italy! thou on whom Fate
 The hapless gift of beauty has bestowed
 A fatal dowry of unceasing woes!
 Thou bearest suffering written on thy brow.
 "Ah! hadst thou been less lovely or more strong,
 Or had they feared thee more or loved thee less
 Who, basking in thy beauty's rays, seem
 To dissolve, yet to a mortal combat challenge thee,

 "Thou wouldst not then see pouring from the Alps
 Torrents of armed men, nor Gallic hordes
 Drink of the blood-stained waters of the Po;

 "Nor wouldst thou see thy sons girt with a sword
 And use their arm to help a stranger's cause -
 Conquering or conquered - ever still to serve."

185 Ellen Orton, the original owner of the copy of Walks in Florence from which this electronic edition was prepared, made the following note in 1880 apropos of this quotation:

 "Italia, o Italia, thou who hast
 The fatal gift of beauty…"
  Childe Harold
186 See “Tuscan Sculptors,” Perkins.
187 See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. i. p. 364.
188 See Lord Lindsay's "Christian Arts," vol. ii. p. 240.
189 A picture representing this scene is in the gallery of the Marchese Gino Capponi.
190 See Napier's "Florentine History," vol. v. p. 499.
191 See “Crowe and Cavalcaselle,” vol. i. p. 469.
192 See “Cavalcaselle,” vol. i. p. 306.
193 See “Cavalcaselle,” vol. i. p. 299.
194 See “Crowe and Cavalcaselle,” vol. i. p. 308.
195 See “Crowe and Cavalcaselle,” vol. i. p. 454.
196 The modern bust and monument to the Florentine sculptor Bartolini are worthy of notice.
 But there I was alone, where every one
 Consented to the laying waste of Florence,
 He who defended her with open face."
   Longfellow's Translation
198 Note handwritten in pencil by the book’s original owner, Ellen Orton, in 1880:  “Very well restored & very quaint & interesting.”
199 See “Crowe and Cavalcaselle,” vol. ii. p. 6.
200 See “Christian Art,” Lord Lindsay, vol. ii. P. 279; also, “Crowe and Cavalcaselle,” vol. i. p. 412.
201 “Christian Art,” Lord Lindsay, vol. ii. P. 282.
“Grateful ‘twill be to me, if thou content me
 Both with thy name and with you destiny?”

 “I was a Virgin Sister in the world,
  And if thy mind doth contemplate me well,
  The being more fair will not conceal me from thee;
 But thou shalt recognize I am Piccarda
  Who, stationed here among these other blessed,
  Myself am blessed in the lowest sphere.”
    Longfellow’s Translation.

203 The philanthropist, the Marchese Carlo Torrigiani, took especial interest in the welfare of this institution, and left money for the supply of good beds for the inmates.
204 See “Der Cicerone,” pp. 158-170.
205 See “Life of Michael Angelo,” by Hermann Grimm.
206 “Storia del Commercio e dei Banchieri di Firenze,” dal Commendatore Simone Peruzzi, p. 471.
207 This book's original owner, Ellen Orton, who visited Florence in May 1880, has added the following note:  "There is a curious arcade or covered passage near the church."
208 See Kugler, "German and Dutch Art," p. 80.  Also, Lord Lindsay, "Christian Art," vol. iii., pp. 310-317.
209 See "Legends of Monastic Orders," by Mrs. Jameson, p. 31.
210 See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. ii. p. 183.
211 See Bargello, part ii.
212 See Mrs. Jameson, "Legends of the Monastic Orders," p. 475.
213 This art seems to have been successfully practised by the Cictercian Order.  The fine glass in the choir of Lichfield Cathedral was brought from a Cistercian nunnery near Liège.
214 See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. iii. p. 416, and Vasari, "Vite dei Pittori," vol. vii. P. 191.
215 The Perseus is under the Loggia de' Lanzi.
216 The oldest botanical garden is at Padua, and next to that is the garden at Pisa.
217 See Mrs. Jameson's "Monastic Orders."
218 See "Christian Art," Lord Lindsay, vol. i. p. 13.
219 See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. ii. p. 375.
220 The decree of beatification did not confer the privilege of being invoked as an intercessor and portrayed in the churches; it was merely a declaration that the person so distinguished had passed a holy life, and had been received into bliss – beato, "blessed."
221 See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. iii. pp. 546-550.
222 "Le Bellezze della Città di Firenze da M. Francesco Bocchi, da M. Giovanni Cinelli ampliate ed accresciute."  Firenze: 1677.
223 Francis I. and his wife Bianca Capello died within a few hours of one another at Poggio a Cajano, in 1587.
224 See Vasari, "vite dei Pittori," vol. iv. P. 106.
225 The monument of Leonardo Aretino is in Sta. Croce.
226 An institution in the Via della Scala was converted into the convent of San Martino, but remained long in possession of a fine piece of Robbia ware, representing swaddled infants, which is now in the Bargello.
227 See illustration at the beginning of this chapter.
228 Jacopo da Lentino, or "the Notary," was a Sicilian poet who flourished about 1250, in the later days of the Emperor Frederick II.  See notes to "Dante," Longfellow. P. 431
 But say if him I here behold who forth
  Evoked the new-invented rhymes, beginning
  'Ladies that have intelligence of Love?'
 And I to him:  'One am I who, whenever
  Love doth inspire me, note, and in that measure
  Which he within me dictates, singing go.'
 'O brother, now I see,' he said, 'the knot
  Which me, the Notary, and Guittone held
  Short of the sweet new style that now I hear.
 I do perceive full clearly how your pens
  Go closely following after him who dictates,
  Which with our own, forsooth, came not to pass;
 And he who sets himself to go beyond,
  No difference sees from one style to another.'
  And, as if satisfied, he held his peace.
   Longfellow's Translation.
"Thus many ancients with Guittone did;
  From cry to cry still giving him applause,
  Until the truth has conquered with most persons."
   See Longfellow's translation and notes.
231 Two of the finest pictures, by Lorenzo Monaco and by Bernardo Mainardi, have been transported to the Gallery of the Uffizi, 1877.
232 The Cnque Lampade formed the subject of tales by Sacchetti and Boccaccio.
233 See above at p. 140 [of the print edition].  Also Bryant's "Dictionary of Painters and Engravers."
234 The original owner of the book from which this ebook is prepared, Ellen Orton, made the following note regarding her visit to the Medici Chapel in Palazzo Medici-Riccardi in May 1880:  "The custode has a curious apparatus, a lamp at the end of a long pole which throws a light on the upper parts of the fresco."
"O thou vain glory of the human powers,
 Ho little green upon thy summit lingers
 If 't be not followed by an age of grossness!
In painting, Cimabue thought that he
 Should hold the field, now Giotto has the cry,
 So that the other's fame is growing dim."
  Longfellow's Translation.
236 The original owner of the book from which this ebook is prepared, Ellen Orton, noted that "There is a covered Fra Bartolommeo in San Marco, 'Madonna and Saints'.  Unfortunately I was not able to get it uncovered."
237 Giuliano di San Gallo rebuilt this church, and thus obtained the name of San Gallo.
238 Among the recent alterations in Florence a splendid market has been constructed in this immediate neighbourhood.
239 See "Piazza del Duomo."
240 See Vasari, "vite de' Pittori," vol. viii. pp 117-120.
241 See Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. iii. p. 538.
242 See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. i. p. 555.
243 The large Raffaelle in this room is the celebrated old Rinuccini copy, by a Fleming, of the Canigiani Holy Family, now at Munich.  The Cherubim in the original (probably painted sketchily as those in the Madonna di S. Sisto) were effaced in cleaning.  Those in this copy are evidently a late addition.  See Passavant, "Rafael von Urbino," vol. ii. p. 70, and C. von Rumohr, "Italienische Forschungen," iii. § 65,
244 The Pope then reigning was Nicholas III.
245 Possibly the son of Giovan Maria Ciocchi, a Florentine painter of the seventeenth century.
246 This is still usual in the church of San Zenone at Verona, where the ascent to the choir is by a numerous flight of steps.
247 Ellen Orton's comment:  "A picture which I took a great liking for."
248 See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. i. p. 543.
249 "Genealogia e Storia della Famiglia Ricasoli" – Luigi Passerini, 1860.
250 See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. i. p. 204.
251 See also "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. ii. p. 448.
252 See "Sacred and Legendary Art," by Mrs. Jameson, p. 150.
253 See chapter on Sta. Croce.
254 Ellen Orton, original owner of the book from which this etext is prepared, noted from her visit in May 1880:  "The Orcagna frescos are difficult to see.  The Chapel is so narrow that one can hardly get far enough off the frescoes to focus them with opera glasses."
255 See vol. i. of this work, "Bigallo and Misericordia."
256 Bull – bolla, stamped or sealed document.
257 See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle:"  Life of Paolo Uccello.
258 See "Mornings in Florence – The Golden Gate," by John Ruskin.
259 Cavalcaselle considers these frescos overpraised, and that they are all by one hand, probably a scholar of the Siennese school who painted the fresco of San Ranieri in the Campo Santo of Pisa, possibly a certain Andrea di Florentia.  See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. i. p. 376; vol. ii. p. 89.
260 See Lord Lindsay's "Christian Art," vol. iii. p. 30.
261 Arius, born in Libya in the fourth century, died 336; Sabellius, born in the Ptolemaid, was condemned by the Alexandrian Council, 261; Averrhoes, born at Cordova, in Spain, in the twelfth century, died in Morocco, 1198.
262 Cavalcaselle throws great doubts on the authenticity of these portraits.  See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. ii. p. 86.
263 These frescos are now in the Castle of Vincigliata, belonging to Mr. Temple Leader.
264 These pictures were formerly in the ancient Fransoni Palace of Genoa.  See Guide by Carlo Giuseppa Rath, 1780.
265 This book's original owner, Ellen Orton, who visited Florence in May 1880, noted in the book:  "My window at the Washington looked into the Borg' Ogni Santi.  I shall never forget my first morning in Florence, Sunday, and being awoke at 4:00 am by the rush of feet in the street beneath me hurrying to early mass, whilst the bells of the Ogni Santi were so melodious that one could hardly believe one's self out of Heaven."  An 1889 edition of the Baedeker for Northern Italy names (on page 374) the Hôtel de Florence & Washington, Lungarno Am. Vespucci 6.
266 See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. ii. p. 464.
267 Ibid., vol. ii. p. 415-420.
268 Ibid., vol. i. p. 453.
269 See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. i. p. 365-395.
270 See Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. ii. p. 464.
271 Whoever desires to have news of the other world, let him come to the Bridge of the Carraia, on the Calends of May.
272 Ellen Orton, the original owner of the book from which this ebook was prepared, noted of her visit to Florence in May 1880:  My Hotel Washington was below the bridge Alla Carraia on the Lung' Arno."
273 Ellen Orton remarks that in May 1880 "This is where some good jewellers and mosaic shops are."
274 Ellen Orton:  "I crossed it [Ponte Vecchio] several times for Taddeo's sake."
275 See Fantozzi, "Pianta Geometrica di Firenze," p. 233.
276 This tale is preserved in a MS. In the Peruzzi family, who were partners with the Bardi in the bank of Bardi and Peruzzo.
..."I am Vanni Fucci
Beast, and Pistoia was my worthy den,
So low am I put down, because I robbed
The sacristy of the fair ornaments."
  Longfellow's Translation.
278 The Marchese Carlo Torrigiani, already mentioned for his philanthropy, was grandson to the Marchese Pietro Guadagni.
279 Ellen Orton noted:  "Two of this series much repainted were exhibited at the Old Masters, Burlington House."
280 See "Decameron" of Boccaccio, vol. iii. p. 387.  Also Poetical Works of John Dryden, Esq., "Theodore and Honoria."
281 See Badia, pp. 313-314.
282 A copy, supposed to have been made by Michele Ghirlandaio from the Raffaelle in the Bridgewater Collection.  See "Cavalcaselle," vol. iii. p. 532.
283 See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. iii. p. 102.  A faithful engraving from this picture may be seen in Rosini's "Storia Tavola," xxxviii.
284 "The Gourd."  See. Vol. i. chap. Iii.
285 This picture was engraved for Mrs. Jameson's work on "Legendary Art."
286 See "Legendary Art," p. 381.
287 See Macchiavelli, "Storie Fiorentine," lib. Iii. p. 80.
288 See "Marietta de' Ricci," vol. ii. pp. 144-151.
The night that Piero Soderini died,
His soul passed onwards to the mouth of Hell,
When Pluto cried, 'You foolish soul, begone!
What, Hell for you?  Go, with the babes, to Limbo.'
290 See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. ii. p. 397.
291 See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. ii. p. 441.
292 See "Savonarola and his Times," by Pasquale Villari, translated by Leonard Horner, vol. i. p. 226.
293 See "Savonarola and his Times," &c. vol. ii. p. 93.
294 See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. iii. p. 417.
295 See "Crowe and Cavalcaselle," vol. i. p. 472.
296 See Mrs. Jameson, "Legends of the Monastic Orders," p. 429.
297 Two heads from this fresco were long in possession of the poet Samuel Rogers, Esq., and are now in the National Gallery of London.  [Ellen Orton, this book's original owner, noted that she had seen these at the National Gallery, and at that time (c. 1880) they were in Room 7.]
298 See "Memoirs of the Early Italian painters," by Mrs. Jameson.
299 See "Memoirs of the Italian Painters," by Mrs. Jameson.
300 See "Savonarola and his times," by Pasquale Villari, translated by Leonard Horner, Esq., vol. i. p. 219.
301 This building has been recently (1874) destroyed by fire.
302 Since the above was written, Hiram Powers departed this life on the 28th June, 1873, and on the 30th his remains were laid in the Protestant cemetery of Florence.  This eminent sculptor was not only a man of great and original genius and upright character, but, like his contemporary, our own John Gibson, he united to a singular degree that clear comprehension and modesty which are so generally characteristic of the highest order of mind.  The tall, dignified figure of the noble old man, his keen eye and pleasant smile, will long be missed by those who have had the privilege of seeing and knowing Hiram Powers in his studio in Florence.
303 "and high taxation," notes Ellen Orton, the book's original owner in 1880.
304   The Tuscan Morpheus gently moves along,
          With poppies and with lettuce garlands crowned,
          Eager for immmortality he drains
           Our pockets and the Marshes.
In courts of law and taxes feels his way,
 And whilst in sleep he drowns his people's sense,
 Whene'er he dreams to imitate his grandsire
   He rasps the crust.


ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING: Embroidering of Pomegranates: Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Courtship || Casa Guidi italiano/English || Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Aurora Leigh || Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Florence: || Preface  italiano/English || Poetry  italiano/English || Laurel Garland: Women of the Risorgimento || Death and the Emperor in the Poetry of Dante, Browning, Dickinson and Stevens|| Enrico Nencioni on Elizabeth Barrett Browning italiano ||

THE ENGLISH CEMETERY IN FLORENCE: Tuoni di silenzio bianco/ Thunders of White Silence italiano/English || The English Cemetery, Piazzale Donatello, Florence: || Il Cimitero degli Inglesi italiano || Cemetery I Tombs A-E || Cemetery II Tombs D-L || Cemetery III Tombs M-Z ||

FLORENCE IN SEPIA: Florence I. Santa Trinita to Santa Croce || Florence I Appendix. The Uffizi || Florence II. North-Eastern Quarter || Florence III. Oltr'Arno || Other Tuscan Cities in Sepia || Italy in Sepia || Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Florence || Susan and Joanna Horner, Walks in Florence|| Sophia Peabody Hawthorne, Notes in Florence|| Francesca Alexander || Augustus J.C. Hare, Florence || Augustus Hare, Edwardian Travel Writer || Florence's Libraries and Museums || Museums Thoughts||

AGNES MASON, C.H.F.: Agnes Mason, C.H.F., Anglican Mother Foundress || Agnes Mason's Patron Saints || Saints Cecilia and Agnes || Augustus Hare, Edwardian Travel Writer || Holmhurst St Mary ||  I fratelli Alinari: Florentine Photographers] ||

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