AND FLORENCE'S 'ENGLISH'
Open to contributions
from Florence Nightingale scholars
Arthur Hugh Clough, see
F8/ 758/ ARTHUR HUGH CLOUGH/ AMERICA/ENGLAND
Arthur Hugh Clough grew up in Charleston, South Carolina, returning to England at the age of ten to attend Rugby School under Thomas Arnold. He was at Balliol, then a Fellow at Oriel, wrote The Bothie of Tober-na-Vuolich, witnessed, with Emerson, the French Revolution of 1848 and the Roman Revolution of 1850, wrote Amours de Voyage, assisted Florence Nightingale, his relative by marriage, returning to America for a year in 1852, then contracted malaria travelling in Italy. Matthew Arnold wrote Thyrsis in his memory. Later, Lytton Strachey in Eminent Victorians would describe him:
But there was an exceptional kind of boy, upon whom the high-pitched exhortations of Dr. Arnold produced a very different effect. A minority of susceptible and serious youths fell completely under his sway, responded like wax to the pressure of his influence, and moulded their whole lives with passionate reverence upon the teaching of their adored master. Conspicuous among these was Arthur Clough. Having been sent to Rugby at the age of ten, he quickly entered into every phase of school life, though, we are told, a weakness in his ankles prevented him from taking a prominent part in the games of the place. At the age of sixteen, he was in the Sixth Form, and not merely a Praepostor, but head of the School House. Never did Dr. Arnold have an apter pupil. This earnest adolescent, with the weak ankles and the solemn face, lived entirely with the highest ends in view. He thought of nothing but moral good, moral evil, moral influence, and moral responsibility. Some of his early letters have been preserved, and they reveal both the intensity with which he felt the importance of his own position, and the strange stress of spirit under which he laboured. "I have been in one continued state of excitement for at least the last three years," he wrote when he was not yet seventeen, "and now comes the time of exhaustion." But he did not allow himself to rest, and a few months later he was writing to a schoolfellow as follows:His wife was Blanche, his sister, Anne Jemima Clough, first principal of Newnham College. Susan Horner wrote on 8th December 1861 in her Diary: 'I went to the Italian Church, and Mamma (A15/ ANNE SUSANNA (LLOYD) HORNER) Joanna and Mrs Zileri (A69/ MARGARET (EDMOND) ZILERI) to the Scotch(A17/ROBERT MAXWELL HANNA) - Blanche and I went to Mrs Bracebridge to talk over the stone she is erecting to her husband's memory. She walked back with me afterwards from the Hotel de la Ville to our house. Harry Stewart called and Mr and Mrs Macbean from Leghorn. The Marchese Torregiani sent me Champollion's work on Egypt as Blanche wanted me to take a drawing from the winged figure of the Divinity for Mr Clough's tombstone. The windows at the Pitti all lighted up for a grand reception given by the Prince Carignano. A soldier's funeral has just past our windows'.
I verily believe my whole being is soaked through with the wishing and hoping and striving to do the school good, or rather to keep it up and hinder it from falling in this, I do think, very critical time, so that my cares and affections and conversations, thoughts, words, and deeds look to that involuntarily. I am afraid you will be inclined to think this "cant," and I am conscious that even one's truest feelings, if very frequently put out in the light, do make a bad and disagreeable appearance; but this, however, is true, and even if I am carrying it too far, I do not think it has made me really forgetful of my personal friends, such as, in particular, Gell and Burbidge and Walrond, and yourself, my dear Simpkinson.Perhaps it was not surprising that a young man brought up in such an atmosphere should have fallen a prey, at Oxford, to the frenzies of religious controversy; that he should have been driven almost out of his wits by the ratiocinations of W. G. Ward; that he should have lost his faith; that he should have spent the rest of his existence lamenting that loss, both in prose and verse; and that he should have eventually succumbed, conscientiously doing up brown paper parcels for Florence Nightingale.
Sir David Dumbreck, see
SIR DAVID DUMBRECK/
NDNB/Wikipedia entries: Prior to the breaking out of the Crimean War he was dispatched on a special mission early in 1854 to the expected seat of war, and traversed on his mission Serbia, Bulgaria, and part of Roumelia, crossing the Balkans on his route. He was subsequently for a short time principal medical officer with the army, and served with it in the field as senior deputy inspector-general, and was present in this capacity and attached to headquarters at the time of the affair of Bulganac, the Alma, capture of Balaklava, battles of Balaklava and Inkerman, and siege of Sebastopol. His rewards were a medal with four clasps, the fourth class of the Medjidie, and the Turkish medal. He was gazetted C.B. on 4 February 1856, became K.C.B. on 20 May 1871, and was named honorary physician to the Queen on 21 November 1865. On 19 July 1859 he was promoted to be an inspector-general of the medical department in Cape Town, and on 1 May in the following year was placed on half-pay and received a special pension for distinguished services. He had married, on 27 February 1844, Elizabeth Campbell, only daughter of George Gibson of Leith. He died at 34 Via Montebello, Florence, on 24 January 1876, and his will was proved on 21 March under £12,000. His widow has lent his medals from the Crimea to the sculptor for his tomb and they are replicated exactly, only in white marble, not colour. These photographs come from his descendant, Robin Dumbreck. Sir David and Florence Nightingale would have known each other.
Sir David Dumbreck Commander of the Order of Bath Crimea medal with 4 clasps Turkish medal, Crimea Order of the Medjidie
Cippo. Marmista ignoto. Sec. XIX, post 1/1876. Ambito toscano. Cippo in marmo, marmo sporco con presenza di crosta nera, sul fronte medaglie di guerra e stemma, recinto in pietra serena e ferro. Intervento di pulitura, Daniel-Claudiu Dumitrescu, 2010. Fondi da parte dei discendenti. [M: A: 201; L: 80; P: 50; P.s.: A: 28; L: 83.5; P: 54; RP.s.F: A: 63.5; L: 204.5; P: 107.] Iscrizione sepolcrale in inglese in lettere capitali e numeri arabi, incisa: SIR DAVID DUMBRECK K.C.B./ BORN IN ABERDEENSHIRE 1805/ INSPECTOR GENERAL OF ARMY HOSPITALS AND/ HONORARY PHYSICIAN TO THE QUEEN SERVED WITH/ DISTINCTION IN THE CRIMEA WAS PRESENT AT THE BATTLES OF ALMA BALACLAVA INKERMANN AND THE SEIGE OF SEBASTOPOL, FOR WHICH HE/ RECEIVED THE CRIMEA MEDAL WITH 4 CLASSES/ THE TURKISH MEDAL AND THE KNIGHTHOOD OF/ THE ORDER OF THE MEDJIDIE/ HE DEPARTED THIS LIFE AT FLORENCE JAN 24 1876/ / UNIVERSALLY REGRETTED/ THIS MONUMENT HAS BEEN ERECTED TO/ HIS MEMORY BY HIS SORROWING WIDOW/ BLESSED ARE THE DEAD WHICH DIE IN THE LORD/ REV. XIV.15/ Records, Guildhall Library, London: GL23777/1 N° 496, Burial 27/01, Rev Tottenham, via Montebello, 34/ Obituary, Times, Pall Mall Gazette/ Registro alfabetico delle persone tumulate nel Cimitero di Pinti: Dumbreck/ David/ Tommaso/ Inghilterra/ Firenze/ 23 Gennaio/ 1876/ Anni 70/ 1342/ N&Q 260. Sir David Dumbreck, K.C.B., b. in Aberdeenshire, 1805, Inspector-General of Army Hospitals, and Hon. Physician to the Queen. Present at Alma, Balaklava, and Inkerman, and at the siege of Sevastopol, for which he received the Crimean medal and four clasps, the Turkish medal, and' knighthood of the Order of the Mejidie, ob. 24 Jan., 1876. Erected by his widow./ NDNB entry/ Freeman, 230-232 / Henderson. Intervento conservativo sul ferro, Alberto Casciani/Daniel-Claudiu Dumitrescu, 2/2008. Chiesa Evangelica Riformata Svizzera, 1827-present.
Parker Remond, see
For slavery was not only American, it was in Europe, Turks enslaved Greeks, and Elizabeth’s slave-owning father built their home in the Malvern countryside like a Turkish palace with minarets and crescent moons.
Joan Kantakuzin, the Romanian nobleman, descended from the Emperor of Constantinople, friend of the Russian Prince Demidov, had owned slaves. The Roma slaves lived there in the same extreme poverty that in our day they did in Osmannoro, Florence, until they were bulldozed in 2010 on the coldest day of winter from their shacks, among them mothers with new-born babies and juveniles, all of them illiterate, though European citizens, and came to live under the Loggia of the Hospital of the Innocents for eight years. I am still caring for some of those Roma families, among them the grieving parents living with me, all four of their children snatched from them by Social Assistance to be put up for adoption in rich infertile Italian families. We are now at the Italian Supreme Court who heard this case 6 November 2019 and will let us know their decision.
Lorenzo Bartolini created the statue on Florence’s Arno of the philanthropist Prince Demidov. Russian wealth was measured in how many ‘souls’, ‘serfs’, ‘slaves’, a man owned. The English Cemetery has slaves, serfs and servants buried side by side with titled nobles and wealthy property owners.
The Roma were slaves of the monasteries and the nobles in Romania until the translation and publication of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin there in 1853, a novel copied from those by Trollope and Hildreth. Then they were subjected to the genocide of the Holocaust in Transnistria.
It is the Roma who created the plaque in Florence’s English Cemetery to honor the visit of Sarah Parker Remond’s friend, the Abolitionist Frederick Douglass, 11 May 1887.
They could also make this plaque:
SARAH PARKER REMOND,
STUDIO’ LA MEDICINA
ALL’OSPEDALE DI SANTA MARIA NUOVA,
Alcmeon, Aristotle’s Physician, said that man dies because he cannot join the end to the beginning. We call our Human Rights project for the Roma in the ‘English’ Cemetery, ‘From Graves to Cradles’. I end as I began with the nineteenth-century, Afro-American Abolitionist, friend of Frederick Douglass and Giuseppe Mazzini, the woman doctor and obstetrician, Sarah Parker Remond.
In fact, it is now made and we hope that it can be placed side by side with Monna Tessa's effigy in Santa Maria Nuova Hospital.
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