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New
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See also http://www.florin.ms/ChapterLast.html and
http://www.ringofgold.eu for the Romanian Roma (gypsies from Romania) were also slaves, of the nobles and the monasteries, from the Middle Ages until the 1853 publication of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle tom's Cabin in Romanian and who still have not attained Civil Rights.
 

FLORENCE'S 'ENGLISH' CEMETERY

AND THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY PORTAL


Iron Chain and Golden Ring, Elizabeth Barrett Browning's 'English' Cemetery in Florence Lecture, Little Rock, 28 February, 2007

See the entries in White Silence for Chapter B, Frances Trollope, Hugh McDonell, Nadezhda (Kalima) De Santis, and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Chapter D, for Theodore Parker and Richard Hildreth with Frederick Douglass' visit to their graves and that of Elizabeth Barrett Browning for their work against slavery, Chapter F for the Scottish daughter of a Greek Slave (Kalitza Psaraki), Henrietta Maria Hay.

See also Frances Trollope's 1836 Jonathan Jefferson Whitlaw.


Timeline and the 'English' Cemetery in relation to the Abolition of Slavery:

1688. Aphra Behn, Ooronoko.

1741-1830. Dr Thomas Somerville, 1741-1830, wrote the History of Queen Anne and also tracts against slavery, his son, William being buried by Mary Somerville in the 'English' Cemetery, 1860. She was buried in Naples, 1872.

*§  WILLIAM SOMERVILLE/ SCOTLAND/ Somerville/ Guglielmo/ / Inghilterra/ Firenze/ 25 Luglio/ 1860/ Anni 87/ 703/ William Somerville, l'Angleterre (Ledbrough, Roxburghshire, Ecosse), rentier/ DNB, GL23777/1 N° 282 Burial 27/06, Rev O'Neill/ NDNB entries for wife, Mary Somerville, for father, Dr Thomas Somerville/ WILLIAM SOMERVILLE/ ELDEST SON OF THE HISTORIAN OF QUEEN ANNE/ BORN AT MINTO ROXBURGHSHIRE/ 22 APRIL 1771/ DIED AT FLORENCE 15 JUNE 1860/ GOD WILL REDEEM MY LIFE FROM/ THE POWER OF THE GRAVE 49 PSALM/ A11N(148)

[His father's death is noted in Bell's Weekly Messenger (No.1770, Sunday, February 28, 1830): 'We regret to learn that the Rev. Dr. Somerville, so eminently distinguished as the historian of Queen Anne, and for other valuable works, died at Jedburgh Manse, at a very advanced age, on Sunday last. The Rev. Doctor was the father of a Scottish church. He had assisted in the communion services in the church of his own parish on the Sabbath preceding, and apparently with no decrease of energy or zeal; but he was taken ill on the evening of that day, and continued to linger, peacefully waiting for his rest, till his departure, as we have said, on the Sabbath of the week following, much about the hour, of the evening when he was first taken ill.--At Jedburgh, on the 16th inst. after a few days illness, the Rev. Dr. SOMERVILLE, in the 90th year of his age, and the 63d in which he had discharged the active duties of a Minister.--Edinburgh paper'. British Library: Title:  The History of Great Britain during the reign of Queen Anne, with a dissertation concerning the danger of the Protestant Succession, and an appendix containing original papers. Author: SOMERVILLE. Thomas. D.D. Publication details:  pp. xxvii. 674. A. Strahan, etc.: London, 1798. 4o. Author of many other books including against slavery. William Somerville is husband of the Scottish mathematician and astronomer Mary Somerville who predicted the existence of Neptune and Pluto. Mary Somerville encouraged Ada Byron, Countess Lovelace (Lord Byron's daughter), in her pursuit of mathematics, Ada Byron and Charles Babbage creating the  modern computer. Mary Somerville's bust is honoured in the Royal Society of which she was a member. She is buried in Naples' Cimitero degli Inglesi. Somerville College, Oxford, is named after her.

     Her tomb, sculpted by Francesco Jerace

1791 Slave Revolt, Haiti

1807 Slave Trade Act

1816. The Battle of Algiers. Edward Pellew, Admiral Lord Exmouth. His second son Sir Fleetwood Broughton Reynolds Pellew (1789-1861), like his father an admiral, married the daughter of Lady Holland, who was créole, and both are buried in Florence's English Cemetery, their tombs designed by Felicie de Fauveau.

§ HARRIET FRANKES (WEBSTER) PELLEW/ ENGLAND/ Pellew/ Enrichetta Francesca/ / Inghilterra/ Firenze/ 7 Agosto/ 1849/ / 409/ Traslocato al 747/ HARRIET FRANKES PELLEW /Only daughter of Sir Godfrey Webster, 4th Bart., and Lady Holland °=The Hon. Peter I. Pellew; GL 23774 N° 135 Burial 09-08, Rev Gilbert for Rev Robbins/ NDNB entry for her husband, Sir Fleetwood Brugham Reynolds Pellew/ Tomb Sculptor: Silvia Mascalchi/ Firenze/ Félicie de Fauveau, Livorno? 1799-Firenze, 1886, e il fratello Hippolyte de Fauveau, who together sculpted tomb of Sir Charles Lyon Herbert. 

§ ADMIRAL THE HON. FLEETWOOD BROUGHTON REYNOLDS PELLEW/ ENGLAND/ Pellew/ Ammiraglio Fleetwood/ / Inghilterra/ Marsilia/ 28 Luglio/ 1861/ / 747/ l'Amiral Fleetwood Pellew, l'Angleterre/ [Admiral died in Marseilles, 28 July 1861]/ GL23777/1 N° 297, Burial 07/08, Age 71 years 6 months, Rev Finch/ Harriet Frances Pellew (who died 7 August 1849) and her husband Admiral the Hon. Sir Fleetwood Broughton Reynolds Pellew had a daughter called Harriet Bettina Frances Pellew (who died 9 November 1886 and who is also buried in Florence), who through her marriage to the Earl of Orford had 2 daughters, Lady Dorothy Elizabeth Mary Pellew Walpole and Lady Maude Mary Pellew Walpole, both of whom married Italians, the Duke of Balzo and the Prince of Palagonia, and are both buried in Italy/ NDNB entry/ HONOURABLE FLEETWOOD BROUGHTON REYNOLDS PELLEW SECOND SON OF EDWARD VISCOUNT EXMOUTH ADMIRAL OF THE BLUE KCE CB BORN . . . DIED AT MARSEILLES THOU . . . /  F8E/ °= The Honourable Peter I. Pellew


 


Félicie de Fauveau, album page of tombs for Charles Lyon Herbert and Admiral Pellew, courtesy of Lord Crawford, Belcarres, descendant of Lord Lindsay

1827. Kalima comes to Florence from Nubia at 14, is baptised in a Russian Orthodox family with the name of 'Nadezhda', Hope.

1833. Parliament abolishes Slavery in the British Empire.

1838. The Abolition of Slavery in the British Empire comes into force.

1846. Elizabeth Barrett Browning, pregnant without knowing it on her honeymoon in Pisa, writes the anti-slavery poem, 'Runaway Slave at Pilgrim's Point', where the raped Black slave kills her child who has the 'Master's face':

One of those whom Admiral Pellew had rescued from slavery was the British Consul in Algeria, Hugh McDonell, who was buried here in 1847:



B16H/ B97/ 363/
HUGH MACDONELL/ SCOTLAND/ SACRED TO THE MEMORY OF HUGH MACDONELL ESQ DIED AT FLORENCE ON THE 3RD JUNE 1847

JLMaquay, Diaries 5/6/1847 'Saturday  Attended the funeral of Mr Hugh MacDonell this morning at 6, fine weather and a large attendance. Bank & home for the remainder of the day.' Webbs note that he was a young Jacobite exile, who emigrated to America with his father and uncles, 1773, moving to Canada after US Independence, returning to England, 1804, becoming Consul at Algiers, 1813-1820, marrying in 1815 as second wife Ida Louise Ullic, daughter of Danish Consul. In 1816 he was arrested, tortured and enslaved by the Dey of Algiers, leading to the bombardment by Lord Exmouth, the father of A112 ADMIRAL THE HON. FLEETWOOD BROUGHTON REYNOLDS PELLEW who is buried in Sector A. Their daughter Ida married the Austrian B96/ FREDERICK ADOLPH KLEINKAUF,  an officer in the Emperor's army, during the Austrian occupation of Tuscany, their baby daughter, named Ida in turn, dying six hours after her birth. Thus the name 'Ida' is shared through three generations. Another daughter, B135/ LOUISE CATHERINE ADELAIDE (MACDONELL) CUMBERLAND, born in Algiers, buried near by, who is noted as having as parents Hugh and Ida MacDonell. While yet another daughter, Emily, became the wife of the Marquis d'Aguado, one of the richest men in Spain, and was a lady in waiting to the Empress Eugenie of France. Their father bought the Oltrarno ex-convent, the Casa Annalena, and he appointed the Polish princes Poniatowski and the Marchese Luigi Torrigiani as guardians for his minor children, while his wife would marry the Duc de Talleyrand, Tallyrand's nephew, following his death.

 

Sarcofago.
Marmista ignoto. Sec. XIX, post 6/1847. Ambito toscano. Sarcofago in marmo scolpito con stemma e croce latina, inciso in lettere capitali in lingua inglese, ai quattro angoli inferiori foglie d'acanto e capsule di papavero a rilievo, poggiante su due sostegni e due basamenti in marmo, recinto in ferro con altre tombe della famiglia (nipote e genero, Kleinkauf). Possibile intervento di pulitura. [M: A: 51. L: 99. P: 133] Iscrizione sepolcrale in lingua inglese incisa in lettere capitali e numeri arabi: SACRED TO THE MEMORY OF HUGH MACDONELL ESQ DIED AT FLORENCE ON THE 3RD JUNE 1847/ Records, Guildhall Library, London: GL 23774 N° 111 HBM late consul and agent at Algiers, died Florence 03-06 in his 94th year, Burial 05-06, Rev Robbins (E101)/ Maquay Diaries: 5 Jun 1847 June 5  1847/ Freeman's Journal, Caledonian Mercury, Dundee Courier, Aberdeen Journal/ Registro alfabetico delle persone tumulate nel Cimitero di Pinti: MacDonnell/ Ugo/ / Inghilterra/ Firenze/ 3 Giugno/ 1847/ / 363/ +/ N&Q 235. Hugh Macdonnell, Esq., ob. June, 18(41?)/ Note many baptism, marriage entries of this family/ Belle Arti 1993-1997 scheda. Chiesa Evangelica Riformata Svizzera, 1827-present.

And we have a Black slave brought from Nubia at 15, her freedom bought by Rosellini's uncle, baptised in a russian Orthodox family, buried in her thirties with honour in the English Cemetery:

B17E/ B58/ 464/ KALIMA NADEZHDA DE SANTIS/ NUBIA/RUSSIA/

Kalima, born in Nubia, a black slave, was brought to Florence in 1828 when she was 14, her freedom purchased by Rosellini's uncle of the Champollion and Rosellini Expedition, who was baptised 'Nadezhda', 'Hope', in a Russian Orthodox family, and who died a lady in Florence. Her tomb with the only Orthodox cross in the cemetery, the Swiss forbidding any cross other than the plain Latin one. The Russian Orthodox cross has the third and slanting bar to signify the salvation of the Good Thief, the damnation of the Bad Thief, at the Crucifixion. The inscription in Cyrillic telling her story is near that of B32/ HIRAM POWERS, American, and part Native American, sculptor of the 'Greek Slave', and also near that of B93/ HOPE HAYWARD, 'OUR HOPE', while in Sector E we have the great statue of Hope by Odoardo Fantacchiotti, E25/ SAMUEL REGINALD ROUTH. Nadezhda exemplifies the spirit of the Cemetery, the Abolition of Slavery, the ending of young children's employment in mines and factories, the freeing of women, the freeing of nations. A very similar story is manifested with F53/ HENRIETTA MARIA HAY, whose Greek mother, Kalitza Psaraki, captured by Ottoman Turks in the Greek War of Independence, was purchased in Alexandria's slave market by the Scots Egyptologist, Robert Hay, and whom he married on Malta in 1828. Nubian Kalima's death at 38 occurs in the year of the Crystal Palace Exhibition in London, in the centre of which was Hiram Powers' 'Greek Slave'.

     
1828 Rosellini and Champollion Expedition funded by the Grand Duke to Egypt and Nubia

Croce. Marmista ignoto. Sec. XIX, post 8/1851. Ambito toscano. Croce ortodossa in marmo, basamento in marmo inciso in cirillico, buono stato di conservazione, non molto sporco. [M: A: 155. L: 63. P: 40. ; P.s. A: L: P: Totale: A: 155. L: 63. P: 40.] Iscrizione sepoclrale in cirillico e numeri arabi: De Santis, Kalima Nadezda Epitaffio: 'Zdes' pokoitsja telo/ negritjank Kalimy/ vo Sv. Kresenii Nadezdy/ privezennoj vo Florenciju/ iz Nubii v 1827 godu/ Primi mja Gospodi/ vo Carstvie Tvoe'/Qui giace il corpo nella negretta Kalima, nel Santo/ Battesimo chiamata Nadezda (Speranza) portata a Firenze dalla Nubia nel 1827, Accoglila Signore nel Tuo Regno/ Talalay: 27.8.1851, N°464, RC/ Informazioni in cirillico/ Registro alfabetico delle persone tumulate nel Cimitero di Pinti: Desantis (Speranza [=Nadezda])/ Kalinna/ / Russia/ Firenze/ 25 Agosto/ 1851/ Anni 38/ 464. Chiesa Evangelica Riformata Svizzera, 1827-present.


1833 Slavery Abolition Act

1836. Frances Trollope. The Life and Adventures of Jonathan Jefferson Whitlaw. 1836. Buried in Florence's 'English' Cemetery, 1863.

B11E/ B80/ 849/ FRANCES (MILTON) TROLLOPE/ ENGLAND/ FRANCESCAE TROLLOPE/ QUOD MORTALE FUIT/ HIC IACET/ . . . / MEMORIA/ NULLUM MARMOR QUAERIT/ APUD STAPLETON/ IN AGRO SOMERSET ANGLORUM/ A.D. 1780 NATA/ FLORENTIAE/ TUMULUM A.D.1863/ NACTA EST

Noted in 'Iron Chain, Gold Ring': On 28 December 1827, the ship 'Edward' had set sail from the Port of London for the Port of New Orleans. On board were Frances Trollope, 40, Cecilia Trollope, 12, Emily Trollope, 10, Henry Trollope, 14, all English, Frances Wright, 28, American, and August Hervieu, 23, French. Frances Wright, associated with Lafayette, had invited the Trollopes to Nashoba where she had a settlement for the education of Negro slaves. Auguste Hervieu, a brilliant young artist, was the children's tutor and companion. With them also were Hester Rust and William Abbott, their servants. Often Hervieu had to sell his art to feed and house them all'. In Cincinatti she had engaged the young B32/ HIRAM POWERS to do Dante's Commedia in wax, starting his career as a sculptor. Pastore Luigi Santini wrote of her presence in Florence: 'She was the matriarch of a clan of writers; herself, two sons and two daughters-in-law. She arrived in Florence with her son Thomas Adolphus in 1843 and took up residence in Piazza Santa Croce, immediately entering into friendly relations with notables of the Court and the British community. In 1849 she moved with her son and daughter-in-law Theodosia Garrow to a little house, Villino Trollope, in Piazza Barbano (now Indipendenza). She dedicated herself to the theatre, organized Anglo-Florentine social life, and wrote prolifically, and her house became a meeting place and obligatory reference point even for such writers as Charles Dickens, Thomas Hardy and Thackeray. Her son's autobiography, What I Remember (London, 1887), is a splendid window on cosmopolitan and cultivated Florence'. L.S. The Biblioteca e Bottega Fioretta Mazzei now has these two volumes, as well as books written by and about Fanny Trollope.

  
Auguste Hervieu                Villino Trollope             

Stele. Marmista ignoto. Sec. XIX, post 10/1863. Ambito toscano. Stele in marmo incisa in lettere capitali in lingua latina e numeri arabi, marmo sporco, posta su basamento in pietra serena, recinto in pietra serena con quattro colonnini spezzati. Intervento di pulitura, Alberto Casciani/ Daniel-Claudiu Dumitrescu, 05/2010.  [M: A: 162. L: 87. P: 51.; P.s. A: 20. L: 96. P: 60; R: A: 38: 198. P: 83.] Iscrizione sepolcrale in latino incisa in lettere capitali e numeri arabi: Iscrizione sepolcrale in latino incisa in lettere capitali e numeri arabi: FRANCESCAE TROLLOPE/ QUOD MORTALE FUIT/ HIC IACET/ . . . / MEMORIA/ NULLUM MARMOR QUAERIT/ APUD STAPLETON/ IN AGRO SOMERSET ANGLORUM/ A.D. 1780 NATA/ FLORENTIAE/ TUMULUM A.D.1863/ NACTA EST/ Eglise Evangelique-Reformée de Florence Régistre des Morts: Françoise Veuve Trolloope, l'Angleterre, fille de Revd. Guillaume Milton, et de Marie, née Gressley, son épouse/ Records, Guildhall Library, London: GL23777/1 N° 337 Burial 08/10 Age 84 Rev Pendleton/ Hampshire Advertiser, Morning Post, relict of Thomas Anthony Trollope, Esq, barrister-at-law/ Maquay Diaries, EBB Letters/ Registro alfabetico delle persone tumulate nel Cimitero di Pinti: Trolloape [Trollope] nata Milton/ Vedova Francesca/ Guglielmo/ Inghilterra/ Firenze/ 6 Ottobre/ 1863/ Anni 84/ 849/ On the Trollopes in Florence, see Giuliana Artom Treves, Golden Ring, passim/ Thomas Adolphus Trollope writes the Latin of the inscriptions for his mother, his wife, his father-in-law; Thomas Adolphus Trollope, What I Remember, I & II/ N&Q Francisca Trollope, b. at Stapleton, Somt, 1780, ob. 1863. (In Latin.)/ NDNB entries for Trollopes, etc/*=Dennis Looney. Chiesa Evangelica Riformata Svizzera, 1827-present. Nulla osta.
See ironchain.html, http://www-florin.ms/gimel CBV.html#Ayres, Mediatheca 'Fioretta Mazzei' holdings, TAU.

1836. Richard Hildreth. The Slave: or Memoirs of Archy Moore. Buried in Florence's 'English' Cemetery, 1865.

* RICHARD HILDRETH/ AMERICA/ Hildreth +/ Riccardo/ / America/ Firenze/ 10 Luglio/ 1865/ Anni 58/ 914/ Richard Hildrith, l'Amerique/ RICHARD HILDRETH/ DIED JULY 10 1865/ / Jeffrey Begeal notes he was American Consul in Trieste/ William Lyons Phelps notes that he wrote an inspiring History of the United States in six volumes, stating in its Preface: 'Of centennial sermons and Fourth of July orations, whether professedly such or in the guise of history, there are more than enough. It is due to our fathers and ourselves, it is due to truth and philosophy, to present for once, on the historic stage, the founders of our American nationa unbedaubed with patriotic rouge, wrapped up in no fine-spun cloaks of excuses and apology, without stilts, buskins, tinsel, or edizenment, in their own proper persons.'/ The Dictionary of Unitarian and Universalist Biography notes that he wrote the first anti-slavery novel, The Slave, which may be read on the Web at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/hildreth/hildreth.html. The Biblioteca e Bottega Fioretta Mazzei seeks these volumes./C20S

  a


1851. Burial of Nadezhda De Santis, 'English' Cemetery.

1851. Crystal Palace Exhibition, London. At its centre, Hiram Powers' sculpture of the Greek Slave to which Elizabeth Barrett Bropwning had already written this sonnet on seeing the work in his studio in Florence.


          ‘HIRAM POWERS’ GREEK SLAVE’

They say Ideal Beauty cannot enter
The house of anguish. On the threshold stands
An alien Image with the shackled hands,
Called the Greek Slave: as if the sculptor meant her,
(That passionless perfection which he lent her,
Shadowed, not darkened, where the sill expands)
To, so, confront men’s crimes in different lands,
With man’s ideal sense. Pierce to the centre,

Art’s fiery finger! - and break up erelong

The serfdom of this world! Appeal, fair stone,
From God’s pure heights of beauty, against man’s wrong!
Catch up in thy divine face, not alone

East griefs but west, - and strike and shame the strong,
By thunders of white silence, overthrown!
   

 

Si dice che la Bellezza Ideale non possa entrare nella
casa d'angoscia. Una figura straniera sta sulla soglia,
con le mani incatenate, la Schiava greca:
come se lo scultore eleggesse lei,
(quella perfezione impassibile che egli le diede,

ombreggiata, non oscurata, là dove la soglia si apre)

per misurare i crimini degli uomini in diversi lidi,
con ogni ideale dell'uomo. Penetra nell'intimo,
infuocato dito dell'arte! - e spezza presto
la schiavitù di questo mondo! Appellati, bella pietra,

dalle pure sommità della bellezza di Dio, contro il male dell'uomo!
Cattura nel tuo volto divino, le pene
e dell'oriente e dell'occidente, - e colpisci e umilia i forti,

da tuoni di bianco silenzio sconfitti!


1852. Harriet Beecher Stowe. Uncle Tom's Cabin. 1852. Visited Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Frances Trollope in Florence in 1860.

1853. Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin translated into Romanian, frees the Roma who had been slaves there of the monasteries and nobles since the Middle Ages.

1860. Theodore Parker's burial in the 'English' Cemetery.

D21Q/ D108/ 698/ THEODORE PARKER/ AMERICA/ THEODORE PARKER/ THE GREAT AMERICAN PREACHER/ BORN AT LEXINGTON MASSACHUSETTS/ UNITED STATES OF AMERICA/ AUGUST 24TH 1810/ DIED AT FLORENCE ITALY/ MAY 10 1860/ HIS NAME IS ENGRAVED IN MARBLE/ HIS VIRTUES IN THE HEARTS OF THOSE HE/ HELPED TO FREE FROM SLAVERY/ AND SUPERSTITION

Pastore Luigi Santini: 'Born of a modest family in Lexington, Massachusetts, he studied at Harvard Divinity School, specializing in a study of German theology. He was drawn to the ideas of Coleridge, Carlyle and Emerson. In 1842 his doubts led him to an open break with orthodox theology: he stressed the immediacy of God and saw the Church as a communion looking upon Christ as the supreme expression of God. He organized the first congregations, called Unitarian, in Boston, and participated in the fight for the abolition of slavery. Seriously ill, he sought refuge in Florence because of his friendship with the Brownings, Isa Blagden and F.P. Cobbe, but died scarcely a month following his arrival. Frances P. Cobbe collected and published his writings in 14 volumes; his compatriot John Hart made the original simple tombstone'. This is what Frederick Douglass published on him:
Next to Rome, in point of interest to me, is the classic city of Florence, and thither we went from the Eternal City. One might never tire of what is here to be seen. The first thing Mrs. Douglass and I did, on our arrival in Florence, was to visit the grave of Theodore Parker and at the same time that of Elizabeth Barrett Browning (B8). The preacher and the poet lie near each other. The soul of each was devoted to liberty. The brave stand taken by Theodore Parker during the antislavery conflict endeared him to my heart, and naturally enough the spot made sacred by his ashes was the first to draw me to its side. He had a voice for the slave when nearly all the pulpits of the land were dumb. Looking upon the little mound of earth that covered his dust, I felt the pathos of his simple grave. It did not seem well that the remains of the great American preacher should rest thus in a foreign soil, far away from the hearts and hands which would gladly linger about it and keep it well adorned with flowers. Than Theodore Parker no man was more intensely American. Broad as the land in his sympathy with mankind, he was yet a loving son of New England and thoroughly Bostonian in his thoughts, feelings, and activities. The liberal thought which he taught had in his native land its natural home and largest welcome, and I therefore felt that his dust should have been brought here. It was in his pulpit that I made my first antislavery speech in Roxbury. That its doors opened to me in that dark period was due to him. I remember, too, his lovingkindness when I was persecuted for my change of opinion as to political action. Theodore Parker never joined that warfare upon me. He loved Mr. Garrison, but was not a Garrisonian. He worked with the sects, but was not a sectarian. His character was cast in a mold too large to be pressed into a form or reform less broad than humanity. He would shed his blood as quickly for a black fugitive slave pursued by human hounds as for a white President of the United States. He was the friend of the non-voting and non-resistant class of abolitionists, but not less the friend of Henry Wilson, Charles Sumner, Gerrit Smith, and John Brown. He was the large and generous brother of all men, honestly endeavoring to bring about the abolition of Negro slavery. It has lately been attempted to class him with the contemners of the Negro. Could that be established, it would convict him of duplicity and hypocrisy of the most revolting kind. But his whole life and character are in direct contradiction to that assumption.
While he had written the following in his diary:





Following this visit
to see Theodore Parker's tomb, Douglass agitated for a better monument to honour him, William Wetmore Story being commissioned to carry out the present one. Story had already created a bust of Parker from life in Rome, and now portrayed him in bas-relief. This is one among several tombs with a portrait medallion: A64/ GEORGE AUGUSTUS WALLIS by Aristodemos Costoli; A15/ ANNE SUSANNA (LLOYD) HORNER by Francesco Jerace; AB7/ INA BOSS SAULTER, by Ettore Ximenes; B4/ ELENA NIKITICNA DIK, NATA AKZYNOVA by Fyodor Fyodorovitsch Kamensky; C3/ THOMAS SOUTHWOOD SMITH by Joel T. Hart; D108/ THEODORE PARKER by William Wetmore Story; D127/ JAMES ROBERTS, by Joel T. Hart?; E12/ JAMES LORIMER GRAHAM, JR by Launt Thompson; E9/ WALTER KENNEDY LAWRIE by Pietro Bazzanti, F27/ PHILIPPINA (SIMONS) CIAMPI, by Joel T. Hart? When President Obama ordered the carpet for the Oval Office he included words he thought originated with Martin Luther King, Jr., but which are actually Parker's words abbreviated by King from a sermon Parker preached against slavery in 1853: 'How long? Not long because the arc of the moral compass is long, but it bends towards justice'. He quoted them again at Nelson Mandela's funeral.
            
                      
        
Theodore Parker's desk with statues                                      Frederick Douglass at Lloyd Garrison's tomb
of Jesus and Spartacus                    Joel Hart(F28)'s tomb for Theodore Parker                        William Wetmore Story's tomb for Theodore Parker

Cippo.
Primo cippo scultore Joel Tanner Hart, secondo cippo (l'attuale) di William Wetmore Story. Sec. XIX, post 5/1860. Ambito toscano. Cippo in marmo scolpito, entro medaglione con foglie d'alloro effige di Theodore Parker. Intervento di restauro conservativo Scuola per l'Arte ed il Restauro di Palazzo Spinelli, 1999, di Daniel-Claudiu Dumitrescu, 3/2016. [M: A: 200; L: 90.5; P: 29; RP.s. A: 24; L: 115; P: 200.] Iscrizione sepolcrale in inglese incisa in lettere capitali e numeri arabi: THEODORE PARKER/ THE GREAT AMERICAN PREACHER/ BORN AT LEXINGTON MASSACHUSETTS/ UNITED STATES OF AMERICA/ AUGUST 24TH 1810/ DIED AT FLORENCE ITALY/ MAY 10 1860/ HIS NAME IS ENGRAVED IN MARBLE/ HIS VIRTUES IN THE HEARTS OF THOSE HE/ HELPED TO FREE FROM SLAVERY/ AND SUPERSTITION/ Eglise Evangelique-Reformée de Florence Régistre des Morts: Le Reverent Theodore Parker, Lexington /Massachusetts aux Etats-Unis), fils de John Parker et de son épouse Hannah née Stearns/  II: 1859-1865 'Registre des Sepultures avec detail des frais, Paoli 1768/ Q 403: 1103 Paoli/ Hull PacketRegistro alfabetico delle persone tumulate nel Cimitero di Pinti: Parker/ Rev. Teodoro/ Giovanni/ America/ Firenze/ 10 Maggio/ 1860/ Anni 49/ 698/ Freeman, 232-235/ N&Q 75. Theodore Parker, the great American preacher, b. at Lexington, Mass. 24 Aug 1810, ob. 10 May 1860. Belle Arti 1993-1997 scheda. Chiesa Evangelica Riformata Svizzera, 1827-present.
See Sally Mitchell, 'Theodore Parker's Graves':  CBVa.html#Mitchell, Elise Madeleine Ciregna, 'Marble Fauns, Angels and Cemeteries,: William Wetmore Story and Friends in Italy', CBVd.html: also Mediatheca 'Fioretta Mazzei' holding, Dean Godzins' biography of Theodore Parker, American HereticAtlantic Monthly, 'Theodore Parker', etc. TAU

1861. The following year Elizabeth Barrett Browning followed him in death and burial.

B12-13I/ B8/ 737/ ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING/ JAMAICA/ENGLAND/ E.B.B./ OB.1861// FRANCESCO GIOVANNOZZI FECE

Sarcofago. Disegno: Frederic Lord Leighton; Scultore Francesco Giovanozzi; Firma: FRANCESCO GIOVANNOZZI FECE. [sarcofago in marmo e elementi decorativi in piombo su disegno di Lord Leighton eseguito da Francesco Giovannozzi, firma in basso a sinistra. Del fratello, Luigi Giovannozzi (1791-1870), è la tomba della Duchessa d'Albany in Santa Croce]. Sec. XIX, post 1864. Ambito toscano. Sarcofago scolpito con cammeo a simbolo della Poesia, arpe, lira greca (con il Dio Pan bifronte del Giardino Torrigiani), arpa ebrea con catena spezzata, arpa cristiana; intagliato con gigli e fiori delle Isole britanniche, rosa, trifoglio, giunchiglie, rami d'ulivo; sarcofago retto da sei colonne con gigli su disegno di Lord Leighton. Ultimo intervento di restauro, Meridiana Restauri, 2006, recinto in ferro, intervento conservativo sul ferro Daniel Dumitrescu, 2008. Per i disegni preparatori conservati alla Royal Academy Library, ecc., si veda ebbdeath.html [M: A: 105. L 191.2: P: 118.5; P.s. A: 37. L: 212. P: 114.6  Recinto A: 72. Totale: A: 204. L: 191.2. P: 118.5 ] Iscrizione sepolcrale in lettere capitali e numeri arabi in piombo: E.B.B./ OB.1861./ Eglise Evangelique-Reformée de Florence Régistre des Morts: Elisabeth Barrett Browning, l'Angleterre, agé de 45 ans/ Q 459: 271 Paoli, including English Church's tax of 113 Paoli/ Q 479: 90 Paoli paid to Ferdinando Giorgi, Master Mason for digging two graves for EBB/ Records, Guildhall Library, London: GL23777/1 N°293 Burial 01/07 Rev O'Neill, 'bronchitis'/ Registro alfabetico delle persone tumulate nel Cimitero di Pinti: 79. Barrett Browning/ Elisabetta/ / Inghilterra/ Firenze/ 29 Giugno/ 1861/ Anni 45 [incorrect, 55]/ 737/ N&Q 207. E. B. B., ob. 1861. No other inscription/ Freeman, 236-23/ NDNB article/ Belle Arti 1993-1997 scheda/ Henderson/ Webbs: heart attack, morphine poisoning?/ Chiesa Evangelica Riformata Svizzer, 1827-present. Nulla osta.

1865. Another writer against slavery, Richard Hildreth, followed them in 1865:


D20S/ D110/ 914/ RICHARD HILDRETH/ AMERICA/ RICHARD HILDRETH/ DIED JULY 10 1865

Frederick Douglass in his diary above notes he also visits the tomb of Richard Hildreth and comments at length on his writings. Jeffrey Begeal notes Richard Hildreth was American Consul in Trieste. William Lyons Phelps notes that he wrote an inspiring History of the United States in six volumes, stating in its Preface: 'Of centennial sermons and Fourth of July orations, whether professedly such or in the guise of history, there are more than enough. It is due to our fathers and ourselves, it is due to truth and philosophy, to present for once, on the historic stage, the founders of our American nationa unbedaubed with patriotic rouge, wrapped up in no fine-spun cloaks of excuses and apology, without stilts, buskins, tinsel, or edizenment, in their own proper persons.' The Dictionary of Unitarian and Universalist Biography notes that he wrote the first anti-slavery novel, The Slave, from witnessing slavery in Florida where he had gone because of his tuberculosis. This novel may be read on the Web at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/hildreth/hildreth.html. TAU has a copy of its Italian translation. Harriet Beecher Stowe, in Uncle Tom's Cabin, copies this novel and that of Frances Trollope (Sector B, B80), Jonathan Jefferson Whitlaw. Buried near Theodore Parker (D108), he also is Unitarian. Frederick Douglass visited both their graves and in his handwritten diary, above, commented admiringly on Hildreth. Hildreth's wife, Caroline Negus, the portraitist who supported her husband's writing career, died of cholera in Naples in 1867.

 

Cippo. Marmista ignoto. Sec. XIX, post 7/1865. Ambito toscano. Possibile intervento di pulitura. [M: A: 99; L: 61; P: 22; P.s. A: 45; L: 82.2; P: 47.1.] Iscrizione sepolcrale in inglese incisa in lettere capitali e numeri arabi: RICHARD HILDRETH/ DIED JULY 10 1865/ Eglise Evangelique-Reformée de Florence Régistre des Morts: Richard Hildrith, l'Amerique/  / III: 1865-1870 'Registre des Sepultures' avec detail des frais; Francs 339.55/ Tiimothy Bigelow Lawrence, Consular Records 11/7/1865, Despath No. 109 to Seward, Death of Richard Hildreth, Boston, MA, aged 57, Late Consul of Trieste/ Registro alfabetico delle persone tumulate nel Cimitero di Pinti: Hildreth +/ Riccardo/ / America/ Firenze/ 10 Luglio/ 1865/ Anni 58/ 914/ DUUB (Dictionary of Universalist Unitarian Biography)/ N&Q 87. Richard Hildreth, ob. 10 July 1865. Chiesa Evangelica Riformata Svizzera, 1827-present. 
Sirpa Salenius, CBVa.html#salenius The Mediatheca 'Fioretta Mazzei' seeks these volumes by Richard Hildreth, History of the United States, History of Banking. We have the two volume translation into Italian of The White Slave, Lo schiavo bianco, Milan, 1853, the second anti-slavery novel. See TAU

1875. Another slave story in the 'English' Cemetery:

F5O/ F53/ 1300/ HENRIETTA MARIA HAY/ SCOTLAND/ TO THE MEMORY OF/ HENRIETTA MARIA HAY/ DAUGHTER OF ROBERT HAY ESQ/ OF LINPLEM  EAST LOTHIAN/ SCOTLAND/ BORN 8 DEC/ 1842 DIED 9 FEB 1875

Her father, Robert Hay, of Linplem, was an Egyptologist. He purchased the former convent of Nunraw, but was ill-fitted for farming after his years (1826-38) as a leader in an archaelogical expedition to Egypt which yielded fruitful results for the British Museum. He published (1840) a folio work entitled 'Illustrations of Cairo' and had brought home to Scotland the slave captured by Ottoman Turks he ransomed in Alexandria, Kalitza Psaraki, daughter of the chief magistrate in Crete, as his wife. See http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200302/the.lost.portfolios.of.robert.hay.htm in which we realize we have a companion tale to Champollion and Rosellini's epedition to Egypt and Nubia, a companion tale even to NADEZHDA DE SANTIS (B58),  echoed in HIRAM POWERS(B32) ' 'Greek Slave' and in ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING(B8)'s impassioned sonnet to that sculpture.. When the purchase of Nunraw was finally completed in 1860, Robert commenced extensive restoration work on the house but he died in 1863 before completing it. His son, Robert James Alexander Hay, then 23 - was at Cambridge - where he took an M.A. The young Laird continued the work of restoring the "castle", and thus in 1864 discovered the painted ceiling, dating back to 1610. Like his father, R. J. A. Hay was fond of travel and in 1875 brought home as his bride from Florence Caterina Maria Teresia, third daughter of Marchese di Monte Castello of Tuscany. When he inherited Nunraw, the property was already burdened with large debts and these soon increased. Eventually, in 1880, Mr. Hay decided to break the entail and he was living in Florence with his wife and children when the sale to Walter Wingate Gray, Esq., was finally completed, while his sister lived at B8/ ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING and Robert Browning's Casa Guidi. (It was republican Elizabeth Barrett Browning who changed its name from Palazzo Guidi, opposite the Palazzo Pitti, to 'Casa Guidi'. During these years the family of ANNA BROWN (E24), and that of CHAPMAN STANSFIELD MARSHALL (E148) also had that address. One can only assume these families had different apartments within the palace, while using her naming for its cachet.) Miss Hay dies a spinster, but with her married brother, his Italian wife, and two nephews living nearby. Thus we see a Tuscan connection with this Scottish family and we realize that Henrietta Maria Hay herself, from her mother, is half-Cretan, part Greek. The widow of William Hay, of the same Clan Hay, FRANCES ANNE (OGLE) HAY (F56), lived at Lungarno 30.

  
Robert Hay, Egyptologist

Croce.
Marmista ignoto. Sec. XIX, post 2/1875. Ambito toscano. Croce in marmo, recinto con colonne di pietra serena. [M: A: 164; L: 60; P: 49; R: A: 56; L: 91; P: 193.] Iscrizione sepolcrale inglese incisa in lettere capitali e numeri arabi: TO THE MEMORY OF/ HENRIETTA MARIA HAY/ DAUGHTER OF ROBERT HAY ESQ/ OF LINPLEM [sic for Limplum] EAST LOTHIAN/ SCOTLAND/ BORN 8 DEC/ 1842 DIED 9 FEB 1875/ Eglise Evangelique-Reformée de Florence Régistre des Morts: Henriette M. Hay, l'Ecosse, fille de Robert/ Records, Guildhall Library, London: GL23777/1 N° 481, Casa Guidi Piazza San Felice, Burial 12/02, Rev Tottenham/ Registro alfabetico delle tumulazione nel Cimitero di Pinti: Hay/ Enrichetta/ Roberto/ Inghilterra/ Firenze/ 9 Febbraio/ 1875/ Anni 32/ 1300. Chiesa Evangelica Riformata Svizzera, 1827-present.

1886-1887 Frederick Douglass, ex-slave, visits Theodore Parker's Tomb in Florence; he also visits Mary Edmonia Lewis in her studio in Rome.

Frederick Douglass visiting other tombs

1865 Abolition of Slavery in the United States

Bibliography


Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Aurora Leigh and Other Poems. Edited, John Robert Glorney Bolton and Julia Bolton Holloway. Harmondsworth: Penguin Classics, 1995.

The Letters of Elizabeth Barrett Browning to her Sister Arabella. Ed. Scott Lewis. 2 vols. Waco: Wedgestone Press, 2002. Michael Meredith, Eton College, 2006.

Jeannette Marks. The Family of the Barrett: A Colonial Romance. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1938. Sheila Frodella, Firenze, 2001.

Joseph Shore and John Stewart. In Old St James (Jamaica): A Book of Parish Chronicles. Kingston, Jamaica:  Aston W. Gardner, 1911. Includes Chapters on 'The Barretts of Cinnamon Hill', and 'A Book of Slaves'. Tony and Jenny Moulton-Barrett, Midhurst, 2005.


Andrew M. Stauffer. 'Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Re-visions of Slavery'. English Language Notes 34 (1997), pp. 29-49.  http://www.cswnet.com/~erin/ebb2.htm


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