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TIME || SPACE || BIBLIOGRAPHY || COMPARING CEMETERIES
 

LA CITTA` E IL LIBRO III
ELOQUENZA SILENZIOSA:
VOCI DEL RICORDO INCISE NEL
CIMITERO 'DEGLI INGLESI',
CONVEGNO INTERNAZIONALE
3-5 GIUGNO 2004

THE CITY AND THE BOOK III
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
'MARBLE SILENCE, WORDS ON STONE:
FLORENCE'S' ENGLISH CEMETERY',
GABINETTO VIEUSSEUX AND
'ENGLISH CEMETERY', FLORENCE
3-5 JUNE 2004
 



 

SABATO, 5 GIUGNO/ SATURDAY, JUNE 5

VISITA A VILLA LANDOR, FIESOLE, CASTELLO DI VINCIGLIATA, MONASTERO DI VALLOMBROSA, BELLOSGUARDO, VILLA BRICHIERI-COLOMBI, VILLA LO STROZZINO

VISIT TO VILLA LANDOR, FIESOLE, VINCIGLIATA CASTLE, VALLOMBROSA MONASTERY, BELLOSGUARDO'S VILLA BRICHIERI-COLOMBI AND VILLA LO STROZZINO
 
 

Villa Landor, Photograph, Daniel Willard Fiske, Courtesy, Kristin Bragadottir
 

Vallombrosa:
 

       Who lay intrans't
Thick as Autumnal Leaves that strow the Brooks
In Vallombrosa, where the Etrurian shades
High arverarch't imbow'r.

John Milton, Paradise Lost
 

And Vallombrosa, we two went to see
  Last June, beloved companion, - where sublime
The mountains live in holy families,
  And the slow pinewoods ever climb and climbe
Half up their breasts, just stagger as they seize
  Some grey crag - drop back with it many a time,
And straggle blindly down the precipice!
  The Vallombrosan brooks were strewn as thick
That June-day, knee-deep, with dead beechen leaves,
  As Milton saw them ere his heart grew sick
And his eyes blind.

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Casa Guidi Windows I.1129-1139

Not a grand nature. Not my chestnut woods
of Vallombrosa, cleaving by the spurs
To the precipices. Not my headlong leaps
Of waters, that cry out for joy or fear
In leaping through the palpitating pines,
Like a white soul tossed out to eternity
With thrills of time upon it. Not indeed
My multitudinous mountains, sitting in
The magic circle, with the mutual touch
Electric, panting from their full deep hearts
Beneath the influent heavens, and waiting for
Communion and commission. Italy
Is one thing, England one.

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Aurora Leigh I.615-627

Vallombrosa, Fete Champetre: Nic Peeters Belgium, Judy Oberhausen USA, JBH, Kristin Björg Sveinsdóttir & Kristin Bragadottir Iceland, Corinna Gestri Italia, ?, Alison O'Connor UK, Michail Talalay Russia, ?, Charles Adler USA, ?, ?, Patricia O'Connor UK, Doreen Jones UK, Mr O'Connor UK, Carmela Rotonda  Italia, ?, Jeffrey Begeal USA, 
Photographer: David Gilbert


TIME
 

* See also 'spacetime', chronology and map, City and Book International Conferences, I, II, Florence
 

1284 Porta a' Pinti Gate and City Wall built
1472 Piero di Jacopo del Massaio, Ptolomaei Claudii Cosmografia
1524-1527 Michelangelo, 'Aurora', Medici Tombs
1529-30 Michelangelo rebuilds Gate and Wall
1552-1553 'Legge Livorniana' allowed for burial of non-Catholics at Livorno, etc.
1584 Stefano Bonsignori, Map with Porta a' Pinti
1690 Map by Captains of the Guelf Party
1731 Map by Odoardo Warren
1765 21 May, 'ordonnance du Parlement de Paris: "le sol ne pouvant plus consommer de cadavres, les cimetières en ville doivent être supprimés"'
1766 Birth of Germaine Necker, daughter of Suzanne Curchod, adopted by Necker the financier, natural father probably Edward Gibbon, author of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
1771 Emanuel Swedenborg, Vera Christiana Religio
1774 Chateaubriand writes about tombs
1775 Walter Savage Landor born
1777 San Frediano Hebrew Cemetery
1783 Map by Francesco Magnelli and Cosimo Zocchi
1787 Luc-Vincent Thiéry writes about tombs
1797 Madame de Staël (Germaine Necker) and Napoleon converse at ball given by the Empress Josephine
1799 The Death of Abel, Attempted from the German of Mr Gessner by Mary Colyer
1801 Félicie de Fauveau born in Livorno
1804 Code Napoleon forbids cemeteries in churches and cities, controls what may be shown on tombs, forbids titles of nobility, and makes tombs impermanent, subject to recycling
1805 Birth of Hiram Powers in Vermont, America
1806 Code Napoleon, Saint Cloud, extended to Italy; Ugo Foscolo, Sepolcri, Brescia; Elizabeth Barrett Moulton Barrett (Ba) born
1807 Edward Barrett Moulton Barrett (Bro) born; Slave trade abolished; Madame de Staël, Corinne ou l'Italie
1808 Tomb of Michal Bogoria Skotnicki in Castellani Chapel, Sante Croce, sculpted by Stefano Ricci
1809 William Godwin, Essay on Sepulchres
1812 Gaetano Cattaneo, Vite e ritratti di illustri italiani; Robert Browning born
1813 Pietro Giordani, 'Delle sculture ne' sepolcri'
1815 Battle of Waterloo, Barretts, with their child Elizabeth, visit Paris and battlefield
1816 Percy Bysshe Shelley, 'On Death'; Madame de Staël praises America, except its practice of slavery
1817 Madame de Staël
1819 Founding of the Gabinetto Scientifico Letterario Vieusseux; Monumenti sepolcrali della Toscana, disegnati da Vincenzo Gozzini, incisi da Giovan Paolo Lasinio, sotto la direzione dei signori Cav. P. Benvenuti e de Cambray Digny; Powers family comes to Cincinnati, Ohio.
1820 Elizabeth Barrett, The Battle of Marathon; Florence Nightingale born in Florence
1820-1830 Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris; Walter Savage Landor in Fiesole
1821 John Keats, Tuberculosis, Epitaph 'Here lies one, Whose name was writ in water', Burial in Rome's Protestant Cemetery; Elizabeth Barrett, 'Stanzas, Excited by Some Reflections on the Present State of Greece'; Anna Jameson first comes to Italy
1822 Lareinty writes to Giovan Pietro Vieusseux; Percy Bysshe Shelley drowns at La Spezia, body found with copy of Keats' Poems opened in the pocket; Burial in Rome's Protestant Cemetery
1824 Lord Byron at Missolonghi; Elizabeth Barrett, 'Stanzas on the Death of Lord Byron'
1825 Ferdinando Malvica, Alcune iscrizioni di Luigi Muzzi; Anna Jameson, The Diary of an Ennuyée; Tomb, Cesare Lampronty, San Frediano
1826 Félicie de Fauveau's father, she supports her family
1827 Swiss Evangelical Reformed Church purchases land beside Porta a' Pinti from the Grand Duke of Tuscany for their cemetery, which they open also to other non-Catholics; Luigi Muzzi publishes 300 tomb inscriptions; Francesco Orioli, Iscrizioni di autori diversi con un discorso sulla Epigrafia italiana; Elizabeth Barrett, An Essay on the Modern Pronunciation of the Greek and Latin Languages: Félicie de Fauveau, Cristina di Svezia rifiuta la grazia al suo scudiero Monaldeschi
1828 Champollion and Rosselini Expedition to Egypt and Nubia, funded by the Grand Duke of Tuscany; Kalinna/Nadezda comes, at 14, to Florence from Nubia, perhaps with the Champollion/Rosselini Expedition; Morichini on Italian inscriptions; Carlo Reishammer landscapes first 'English' Cemetery; Jean David Marc Gonin, first 'English' Cemetery tomb; Trollopes come to Cincinnati and have Hiram Powers sculpt Dante's Commedia in wax
1829 Bartolommeo Gamba, Elogi di italiani illustri; John Flaxman, Lectures on Sculpture; Burial of Varvara Il'nicna Kasincova; Anna Jameson, The Memoirs of the Loves of the Poets by the Author of the "Diary of an Ennuyée"
1830 Ferdinando Malvica, Iscrizioni italiane; Greek War for Independenc from Turkey ends
1831 Bernard Zaydler, History of Poland; Félicie de Fauveau captured with Félicie de la Rochejaquelin and imprisoned
1832 Epitaph, Giuseppe Carmignani; Leopardi, Amore e morte del 1832; Niccolò Puccini, garden at Pistoia with statues and epitaphs; Epitaph to Cav. Francesco Lenzoni
1833 Abolition of Slavery in British Empire; Ferencz Pulszky's first visit to Italy
1834 Pietro Giordani publishes over 200 inscriptions
1835 Giuseppe Sacchi, Viaggio in Toscana
1836 Tombs of Caroline Napier, wife of Captain Henry Edward Napier, R.N., Jean Claude Lagersward; Walter Savage Landor praises Elizabeth Barrett's classical scholarship, they and William Wordsworth dine together at John Kenyon's
1837 Pietro Contrucci, Iscrizioni italiane; Hiram Powers settles in Florence, advised by Lorenzo Bartolini to eschew Neo-Classicism for Naturalism; Tomb of Walter Kennedy Lawrie; Tomb of Countess Zofia Czartoryska Zamoyska in Santa Croce by Bartolini
1838 Melchior Missirini, Degli illustri italiani; Hiram Powers's son, James Gibson Powers, is enbalmed for shipping to America but will later be buried in the 'English' Cemetery; Horace Greenough sculpts 'Abdiel'; Elizabeth Barrett and Theodosia Garrow both in Torquay convalescing; 'Bro', Edward Barrett Moulton Barrett, drowns at Torbay; Tombs of Ivan Ivanovic Ivanov, Revd Hugh James Rose, beginner of Oxford Movement
1839 Nicholas Longworth requests of Hiram Powers a tomb sculpture for his parents' monument in New Jersey
1839-1842 Hiram Powers' two versions of 'Eve Tempted'
1840 Tomb of Elizaveta Pavlovna Frolova; Karol Markò and his family settle in Florence, at invitation of Grand Duke of Tuscany with a Chair at the Accademia di Belle Arti; Félicie de Fauveau settles in Florence in exile from France
1841 Oreste Raggi, Monumenti sepolcrali eretti in Roma agli uomini celebri per scienze, lettere ed arti; Horace Greenough sculpts Lucifer; Tomb of Karl Philippe Stechling
1842 Nicholas Longworth attempts a public subscription to purchase 'Eve Tempted'; Michele Amari, I Vespri Siciliani
1843 Fantozzi plans modern Florence; Hiram Powers' 'Greek Slave'; Trollopes come to Florence; Elizabeth Barrett, Cry of the Children
1844 Elizabeth Barrett, A Drama of Exile, participation in Richard Hengist Horne's New Spirit of the Age; Theodosia Garrow meets Thomas Adolphus Trollope; Burial of Count Boris Sievers; Petr Kudrjavcev, thesis on Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in the ninth, tenth, eleventh centuries
1845 Elizabeth Barrett publishes Lady Geraldine's Courtship, in which she has her heroine propose to Alfred Tennyson and Robert Browning; acquaintance with Robert Browning starts; Tomb of Colonel James Hughes; John Henry Newman asks Dominic Barberi to receive him into the Catholic Church
1846 Elizabeth Barrett Browning elopes with Robert Browning to Paris, where they meet with Anna Jameson, going on to Petrarch's Vaucluse, and Pisa where EBB writes The Runaway Slave at Pilgrim's Point
1846-47 Henry Edward Napier, Florentine History from the Earliest Authentic Records to the Accession of Ferdinand the Third, Grand Duke of Tuscany
1846-1850 Irish Potato Famine
1847 Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi, 'Del modo di onorare gli illustri defunti'; Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Browning reach Florence, journey to Vallombrosa, acquire Casa Guidi for the first time; Elizabeth Barrett Browning sees 'Eve Tempted' in Hiram Powers' studio; Margaret Fuller meets Marchese Angelo Ossoli in Rome; Camillo Cavour, Il Risorgimento
1848 Tomb of Harriet Fischer Garrow, Death from Smallpox; Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood founded; Bernard Zaydler meets Adam Mickiewicz, publishes History of Military Operations of the Polish Legions in Italy; Elizabeth Barrett Browning writes about Félicie de Fauveau, comparing her to Benvenuto Cellini; Typhus Epidemic in Europe
1849 Giuseppe Manuzzi publishes 750 epigraphs; Tomb with Epitaph of Andrea Mayer; Lost Tomb, Alice Cottrell, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, A Child's Grave in Florence, its epitaph; Tomb of Harriet Frances Pellew by Félicie de Fauveau; Isa Blagden settles in Florence; Brownings' son, Robert Weidemann ('Pen'), born; Austrians occupy Tuscany; Elizabeth Barrett Browning in Bagni di Lucca gives her husband the Sonnets from the Portuguese written secretly during their courtship; French beseige Risorgimento's Roman Republic; Anita Garibaldi and infant following childbirth during flight, bodies buried in shallow sand, dug up by dogs; Ferencz Pulszky sent by Lajos Kossuth to England, associating with Guiseppe Mazzini
1850 'Eve Tempted' shipwrecked off the coast of Spain; Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Hiram Powers' The Greek Slave; Margaret Fuller, spouse and baby, and Hiram Powers' Calhoun in shipwreck of the 'Elizabeth' off Fire Island; Queen Victoria chooses Alfred Tennyson for Poet Laureate, instead of Elizabeth Barrett Browning; Petr Kudrjavcev, Destiny of Italy at the Fall of the Western Roman Empire to Charlemagne
1850-1863 Villino Trollope; Isa Blagden and Miss Agassiz
1851 Tombs of Nubian Kalima Nadezhda De Santis, Charles Wital; Crystal Palace Exhibition, with Hiram Powers' Greek Slave at its centre, visited by Queen Victoria and the Brownings; Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Casa Guidi Windows; Isa Blagden, Miss Agassiz in Rome; Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom's Cabin
1851-1853 John Ruskin, The Stones of Venice
1852 Tomb of Elizabeth Shinner, the Trollopes' maid; Burial of Grigorij Cilikov Muradov; Isa Blagden cares for invalid Louisa Alexander until Alexander leaves for India in 1855; Brownings meet George Sand; Sir Culling Eardley Eardley's Evangelical Alliance secures release from imprisonment of the Florentine Madiai.
1853 Tombs of Jacques Augustin Galiffe, Swiss historian and genealogist, Sophia Hugel Lagersward, Valentine Grandi; Bice born to Theodosia and Thomas Adolphus Trollope; John Roddam Spencer Stanhope visits Florence; Giovan Pietro Vieusseux gives back to Bernard Zaydler copies of his unsold History of Military Operations of the Polish Legions in Italy; Brownings in Bagni di Lucca; Harriet Hosmer sculpts Brownings' 'Clasped Hands'
1854 Florence Nightingale in the Crimea; Jessie White Mario meets Garibaldi in London
1855 Cholera Epidemic; Robina Wilson Cattani Cavalcanti, Scots Protestant buried in English Cemetery, married to a Florentine Catholic; Pozzi, plan for Florence, showing 'English' Cemetery; Tennyson reads Maud to Brownings and Dante Gabriel Rossetti; Tomb of Sir Charles Lyon Herbert by Félicie de Fauveau
1856 Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Aurora Leigh; Tomb of Nikolaj Nikolaevic Chlebnikov
1856-1858 Gaetano Sorgato, Memorie funebre
1857 Indian Mutiny; Tomb of Joseph Garrow, Epitaph by Thomas Adolphus Trollope; Burial of Aleksandr Michajlovic Zukovsky; Frances Powers; Elizabeth Barrett Browning writes about Isa Blagden's Bellosguardo balcony, used in Aurora Leigh; Brownings in Bagni di Lucca; Isa Blagden and Annette Bracken at Villa Brichieri, and Bagni di Lucca, where Edward Robert Bulwer Lytton ('Owen Meredith') falls ill, Isa nursing him back to health; poet and diplomat, he would become Viceroy of India, proclaiming Queen Victoria Empress of India; Anna Jameson living in Via Maggio; Jessie White imprisoned in Genoa, meets Alberto Mario; Harriet Beecher Stowe in Florence and Rome; Harriet Hosmer exhibits 'Beatrice Cenci' at Royal Academy; Tomb of Varvara Arsen'evna Kudrjaceva; Frances Power Cobbe, Italics, describes Félicie de Fauveau
1858 Column with Cross at centre of Cemetery given by Frederick William of Prussia;  Hawthornes live in Florence, Isa Blagden in Madrid; Tombs of Boris Michajlovic Chrapovickli, Ivan Nikolaevic Kantakusin; Petr Kudrjavcev in Russia, following his wife's recent death in Florence; Robert Browning says Félicie de Fauvau is a 'divine woman'; Isa Blagden's essay on Félicie de Fauveau in English Women's Journal
1859 Battle of Solferino, Jean Henri Dunant, from witnessing lack of medical care to its 14,000 Austrian, 15,000 French and Italian casualties, will found Red Cross and Geneva Conventions; Walter Savage Landor installed in Lily Wilson's lodging, having been thrown out of his Villa Gherardesca by his family; Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Browning with the Risorgimento jewellers, the Castellani, in Rome; Kate Field comes to Florence; Brownings staying at Villa Alberti, Siena, with them Kate Field,  Isa Blagden, William Wetmore Story, Walter Savage Landor; Isa Blagden with Charlotte Cushman, Harriet Hosmer and Emma Stebbins in Rome; Tombs of Eduard Bosse, Countess Eleanora Emilia Stenbock-Fermor, Paul Polidorovic Ventura; Burial of Victor Geyza Szilassy, disciple of Carol Markò; Deposit of Eugenie Jesakoff de Kraft before shipment to Russia; Isa Blagden, 'On the Italian colors being replaced on the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, April 27th, 1859'
1860 Tombs of Theodore Parker (to be visited by Frederick Douglass), William Somerville, husband to Mary Somerville; Susan Horner, A Century of Despotism in Naples and Sicily; Building of Gatehouse from cypresses in cemetery; Isa Blagden shares Villa Brichieri with Frances Power Cobbe; Harriet Beecher Stowe, George Eliot visit Florence; Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Poems Before Congress; Robert Browning finds Old Yellow Book in San Lorenzo Market; Brownings in Siena; Nathaniel Hawthorne, Marble Faun; Ferencz Pulsky in Turin as Kossuth's representative to Cavour, exhibits medieval treasures at the Bargello in Florence and settles at Santa Margherita a Montici, becoming close friend of Francesco dall'Ongaro; Mary Young, The Life and Times of Aonio Paleario; Death of Anna Jameson
1861 Death of Camillo Cavour; Tombs of Elizabeth Barrett Browning (death from tuberculosis), Arthur Hugh Clough, Anne Susan Lloyd Horner, Admiral, the Hon Fleetwood Broughton Reynolds Pellew and his wife Harriet Frances Pellew; Cemetery to be closed; Hiram Powers begins an 'Adam and Eve'; Kate Field returns to America; Susan and Joanna Horner in Florence; Marchese Torrigiani sends Susan Horner Champollion's book on Egypt and Nubia; Kingdom of Italy, Capital, Turin
1862 Tomb of Ernst Gotthilf Bosse, Burial of Marija Martyrnovna Dobrovol'skaya; Ferencz Pulszky breaks with Kossuth, Mazzini, joins Garibaldi at Aspromonte; Horners leave Florence
1862-72 Isa Blagden publishes five novels, many articles
1863 Tombs of Giovan Pietro Vieusseux, Fanny Trollope, Gyula Pulszky, Sofia Felicatovna Golikova, Florence Powers, burial of three Powers' children in one tomb in the 'English' Cemetery; In tribute to Nicholas Longworth, 'Eve Disconsolate' given to Cincinnati Art Museum; Walter Savage Landor, Heroic Idylls; Severinus Goedke Officer of Poland's Revolutionary Government
1864 Algernon Swinburne visits Walter Savage Landor; Tombs of Walter Savage Landor, Severinus Goedke, who has died in Florence from his wounds fighting for Poland, Ivan Leontevic Levickij, Henri Schneider, Georgij Dmitrievic Renesov, Allen Frances Woodall, Norma Woodall and their son, Hiram Powers caring for the Woodalls, Isa Blagden and Lily Wilson for Walter Savage Landor; Burial of Dorotea Frederikovna De Thom; Isa Blagden and Charlotte Cushman in Rome; Leonard Horner, buried at Woking; John Roddam Spencer Stanhope, because of asthma, settles in Florence, paints his Christ in 'The Winepress'; Jean Henri Dunant founds the International Red Cross
1864-1870 Giuseppe Poggi's proposal to modernize and expand Florence
1865 Tombs of Antonina Ivanovna Bernova, Theodosia Garrow Trollope, Isa Blagden having nursed her in her final stages of tuberculosis; Burial of Aleksandr Vichmenev; Florence, Capital of Kingdom of Italy; Pozzi, Plan for Florence; Committee for new cemetery almost acquires land for it outside the wall at Sante Croce; Poet Laureate Alfred Austin meets Isa Blagden in Florence, will edit her Poems; Isa in Venice; William Holman Hunt marries Fanny Waugh;  Great Britain and Canada add their names to the first ten European countries who signed the Geneva Convention treaty, setting up the International Red Cross
1866 Holman Hunts in Florence, Cyril Benoni Holman Hunt born, Tomb of Fanny Waugh Hunt, sculpted by Holman Hunt, death following childbirth; Ferencz Pulszky's wife, Therese Walther, and their children Henriette and Gabor, in an epidemic, in Hungary; General Joseph Hauke Bosak tries to form a Polish Legion to aid Garibaldi against Austria
1867 Tombs of Mary Stanhope Spencer, sculpted by John Roddam Spencer Stanhope, Maurice Baruch, Mary Young, author of Aonio Paleario, Ivan Nikolaj Giamari; Burial of Paraskeva Rodionovna Dogadine; Joanna Horner Zileri in England, will be buried in Florence; Isa Blagden again in Bagni a Lucca; Ferencz Pulszky returns to Hungary
1868 Holman Hunt returns, Villa Medici, Fiesole; William Morris meets Icelander Eirikur Magnusson; Robert Browning, The Ring and the Book; Tombs of Elena Nikiticna Dik, Marie Petrovna Kochanowskaja, Alesandr Aleksandrovic Mordvinov
1869 Cemetery to be re-landscaped; Committee buys land from the Mazzei for new Cemetery of the Allori; Sophia Peabody Hawthorne, Notes in England and Italy; William Rossetti finds Holman Hunt still sculpting his wife's tomb in Fiesole; Ferencz Pulszky Director of Hungarian National Museum
1869-1870 Medieval walls and gates (including Porta a Pinti) of Florence, now capital of Italy, torn down, according to Giuseppe Poggi's plan for Paris-like avenues
1870 Tombs of Andrea Casentini, Ivan Markovic Danielovic, Julia Gottardovna de Manteuffel, Baroness Ol'ga Ivanovna Nordenstamm; Burials of Vera Michajlovna Zeleznova, Louisa Catherine Adams Kuhn, sister of Henry Adams (The Education of Henry Adams, 'Chaos' chapter), of Tetanus; Piazza now named 'Donatello' instead of 'Porta a' Pinti'
1871 Tombs of Arnold Savage Landor, Louis Rodolphe Gustave Adolphe Du Fresne, Rosa Pulini Madiai, Vladimir Fedorovic Radeckij; William Morris first visits Iceland; General Hauk Bosak at Dijon in Franco-Prussian conflict; Rome, Capital of Italy
1872 Isa Blagden's last visit to England; Tombs of Margaret Edmond Zileri, Louise Laure Sophie Alice and Rodolphe Guillaume Dalgas, Evgenij Fedorovic Alisov, Leonid Aleksandrovic Gorodecklj, Princess Vera Leonivona Urusova; Burial of Olga Dragomanova
1873 Isa Blagden dies, Linda Villari at her bedside; Tombs of Isa Blagden, Hiram Powers, Anatolij Mihajlovic Maslennikov, Emil Kann, Isabella Kann, Georg Emil Kann in an epidemic; Burial of Modest Nikolaevic Raznatovskij: Isa Blagden, Poems, ed. Alfred Austin; Susan and Joanna Horner, Walks in Florence; John Roddam Spencer Stanhope purchases Villa Nuti, Bellosguardo; William Morris visits Florence, he also visits Iceland again; Villa Palmieri acquired by Alexander Lindsay who frequently purchases works by Félicie de Fauveau for their homes in Scotland; Hiram Powers' The Last of Her Tribe
1874 Algernon Swinburne writes to Clarence Stedman about Walter Savage Landor; Burial of Elizaveta Fedorovna Disson/Dixon; Tombs of Nicolaj Aleksandrovic Kolemin, Ljudmila Borisovna Pavlovic, Michail Dmitrievich Zasseckij, Elisabetta Fabianova Stahlberg; † Contessa Giulia Guicciardini Marocchi, both converts to Protestantism, her brother Piero dying in exile
1875 Epitaph, Clara Arabella Caccia, nata Birch; Servadio Chapel in Classical style; Cemetery of the Allori consecrated by the Anglican Bishop of Bombay; Thomas Adolphus Trollope, 'Some Recollections of Hiram Powers', Lippincott's Magazine; Tomb of Anna Cla Egia, Epitaph in Romansch by her daughters and granddaughters
1875-1886 John Roddam Spencer Stanhope with George Frederick Bodley, Marlborough Chapel
1876 Tombs of Baron Auguste de Mannerheim, F'dor Pavlovic D'Oussow, Guglielmina D'Oussow; Mary Edmonia Lewis, half Chippewa Indian, half Afro-American, exhibits Cleopatra (used in Nathaniel Hawthorne's Marble Faun), at Centennial Exhibition, Philadelphia
1876-80 Robert Bulwer Lytton, 'Owen Meredith', Viceroy of India, has one sixth of all Civil Service posts go to Indians
1877 'English' Cemetery officially closed, the Allori Cemetery taking its place; Burials of Maria Böcklin, Ekaterina Jur'evna Andrianovna, nata Lisjanskaja, Nikolaj Vladimirovic Kovaleskij, Lydia Sechavcova, nata Roberts, Caterina Markò Nicary; Tombs of Joel Hart, American sculptor, Elise Bosse; Susan and Joanna Horner, Walks in Florence
1878 Cemetery of the Allori opened
1879 Daniel Willard Fiske travels to Iceland for the first time
1880 Hebrew Cemetery, Rifredi; Arnold Böcklin, 'Island of the Dead', Basle, New York; Chapel of the Cemetery of the Allori opened

1881 Levi Chapel in Egyptian style
1883 Ripa Chapel in Florentine Renaissance style; John Roddam Spencer Stanhope, 'Charon and Psyche'
Arnold Böcklin, 'Island of the Dead', now in Berlin

1884 Mappà with Epitaph to Daniele Finzi
1886-1887 Frederick Douglass, ex-slave, visits Theodore Parker's Tomb in Florence; he also visits Mary Edmonia Lewis in her studio in Rome
1886 Franchetti Chapel in Renaissance Florentine style; Tomb of Félicie de Fauveau, San Felice a Ema
1887 Franchetti-Kohen Chapel in Neo-Moorish style, Padoa Modena Chapel in Gothic style
1888 Tomb Epitaph of Enrico Uzielli; Daniel Willard Fiske leaves Cornell University for Fiesole's Villa Gherardesca, with a library of Icelandic and Petrarcan materials
1889 Robert Browning in Venice, Tomb in Poet's Corner, Westminster Abbey; Ferencz Pulszky in Budapest
1891 John Roddam Spencer Stanhope involved with plans to reconstruct Holy Trinity; William Morris, Kelmscott Press
1892-1894 Spencer Stanhope, 'Memorial Chapel Altarpiece
1892-1896 Spencer Stanhope paints Holy Trinity altarpieces; William Morris
1892-1904 George Fredrik Bodley builds Holy Trinity Church
1893 'Lupi' Hebrew Cemetery, Livorno
1897 Zionist Movement, Basle Congress
1900 Tomb, Enrichetta, Quattrocento style, Rifredi; John Ruskin
1901 Arnold Böcklin, Tomb in the Allori; Jean Henri Dunant, founder of Red Cross, who had been living in poverty, awarded first Nobel Peace Prize
1904 Daniel Willard Fiske
1905 Alfonso Mussafia, philologist
1906-1911 St James English Church
1908 Tomb of John Roddam Spencer Stanhope, sculpted by himself; Stanislaw Brzozowski comes to Florence, frequents Biblioteca Filosofica, founded by Giuseppe Prezzolini and Giovanni Papini, at Piazzale Donatello, 5
1910 Holman Hunt, Florence Nightingale, her Epitaph: "F.N. BORN 1820. DIED 1910."
1911 Tomb of Corrado Pergola
1912 Tombs of 'Barone' Adolfo Scander dei Levi; at the Allori Cemetery, Robert Weidemann Browning, who died at Asolo of his father's poem Pippa Passes; Mrs Orr presents the Castellani ring to Balliol College, Oxford
1915 Levi Chapel in Renaissance Florentine style
1918 Tomb of Elena Raffaelovich Comparetti
1922-1932 Clara Louise Dentler publishes over 400 articles
1924 Clara Dentler publishes biography of Katherine Luther
1937 Tomb of Robert Davidsohn
1938 Hitler visits Florence and 'English' Cemetery as 'Island of the Dead'; Gladys Mulock Hunt presents matching paten to Holy Trinity Church, Florence, in memory of Cyril Benoni Holman Hunt
1945 Clara Louise Dentler, widowed, settles in Florence
1954 New Slab on Walter Savage Landor's Tomb
1967 Holy Trinity Church sold to Waldensians
1977 Clara Louise Dentler while visiting Perugia
1996 Evgenij Poljakov in Paris from AIDS, Tomb in 'English' Cemetery
2000 Biblioteca e Bottega Fioretta Mazzei nel Cimitero 'degli Inglesi'
2004 Convegno, Aureo Anello e Gabinetto Vieusseux, 'La città e il libro III'
 


SPACE

THE CITY OF FLORENCE
 

aaEnglish Cemetery, Piazzale Donatello, is green oval top right

Elizabeth Barrett Browning twice describes the silver arrow of the Arno River shooting through the city of Florence. In Casa Guidi Windows I.52-59

    I can but muse in hope upon this shore
      Of golden Arno as it shoots away
    Straight through the heart of Florence, 'neath the four
      Bent bridges, seeming to strain off like bows,
    And tremble, while the arrowy undertide
      Shoots on and cleaves the marble as it goes,
    And strikes up palace-walls on either side,
      And froths the cornice out in glittering rows,
    With doors and windows quaintly multiplied,
       And terrace-sweeps, and gazers upon all,
    By whom if flower or kerchief were thrown out
      From any lattice there, the same would fall
    Into the river underneath no doubt,
      It runs so close and fast, 'twixt wall and wall.
    How beautiful.

And in Aurora Leigh VII.534-537:

                                            Beautiful
   The city lay along the ample vale,
    Cathedral, tower and palace, piazza and street,
    The river trailing like a silver cord
    Through all, and curling loosely, both before
    And after, over the whole stretch of land
    Sown whitely up and down its opposite slopes
    With farms and villas.

1* Duomo/Cathedral +; 2* Campanile di Giotto/ Giotto's Bell Tower; 3* Battistero/ Baptistry +; 4 Casa di Dante/ Dante's House; 5 Colonna dell'Abbondanza/ Column of Plenty in Piazza della Repubblica; 6 Badia/ Abbey Church +; 7* Bargello; 8*Palazzo Vecchio/ People's Palace; 9 Loggia dei Lanzi o dell'Orcagna; 10* Galleria degli Uffizi/ Uffizi Gallery; 11* Ponte Vecchio/ Old Bridge; 12* Orsanmichele +; 13 Poste e Telegrafi/ Post Office; 14 Palazzo Strozzi/ Strozzi Palace; 16 Palazzo Ferroni Spini; 17* Chiesa di Santa Maria Novella +; 18 Stazione Centrale/ Santa Maria Novella Station; 20* Chiesa di San Lorenzo e Cappelle Medicee/ Basilica of San Lorenzo +, Medici Tombs/ Laurentian Library (this last is in the cloister and upstairs, entered on the left from the church); 21*Palazzo Medici Riccardi with Benozzo Gozzoli Chapel; 22* Cenacolo di S. Apollonia (a free museum with magnificent fresco of Last Supper) +; 23* Accademia di Belle Arti; 24* Chiesa e Museo di San Marco/ Church and Museum of San Marco +; 25* Chiesa della Santissima Annunziata and Ospedale degli Innocenti +; 26* Chiesa di Santa Croce +; 27 Biblioteca Nazionale; 28 Giardino di Boboli; 29 Palazzo Pitti; 30 Chiesa di Santo Spirito +; 31Chiesa del Carmine +; 32* Museo di Storia della Scienza; 34 Teatro Comunale; 35 Fortezza da Basso; 37 Piazzale Michelangelo; 38 Forte di Belvedere; 39 Sinagoga; 41* Chiesa di Ognissanti +


                                                                              English Cemetery
                                                                                                   Piazzale Donatello

Before the Risorgimento, Florence's walls and city gates, built first by Arnolfo di Cambio, then by Michelangelo, had enclosed her. This map shows Florence as it was in the earlier nineteenth century, from Augustus Hare's Florence:

                                                                                 Protestant Cemetery
                                                                                 Before 1877

And now, Vasari's painting of Renaissance Florence, not essentially changed from the previous map.


 
 

THE VILLAS AROUND FLORENCE

Bellosguardo: Villa Brichieri-Colombi (Isa Blagden, etc.),Villa dello Strozzino (John Roddam Spencer Stanhope), Villa dell'Ombrellino, Torre di Montauto (Nathaniel Hawthorne). Hiram Powers and Felicie de Fauvau's studios were on the via de' Serragli to the other side of the Giardino Torrigiani and parallel to via Romana.


Cimitero agli Allori

Ferencz Pulszky at Santa Margherita a Montici,

Queen Victoria at Villa Palmieri, Walter Savage Landor and Daniel Willard Fiske at Villa Gherardesca, Villa Landor, now La Torriacia, Holman Hunt at Villa Medici.


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*_________. White Marble: The Life and Letters of Hiram Powers, Sculptor. Manuscript in the Smithsonian Institute.

Emma Detti. Margaret Fuller Ossoli e i suoi corrispondenti. Firenze: Le Monnier, 1924.

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______ “English Authors in Florence.” Atlantic Monthly (1864): 660-71.

______ “The Last Days of Walter Savage Landor.” Atlantic Monthly (1866): 385-684.

*La Firenze dei Russi. Ed. Lucia Tonini, Michail Talalay. Firenze: Edizioni Polistampa, 2000.

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______________.  Cornell University Library. Catalogue of the Icelandic Collection bequeathed by Willard Fiske. Compiled by Halldór Hermannsson. Ithaca, N.Y., 1960.

______________. Chess in Iceland and in Icelandic literature. [S.l.] : [s.n.], 1905

 _____________. Mímir: Icelandic institutions with addresses MCMIII. Copenhagen, 1903.

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Ugo Foscolo. I sepolcri: versi di Ugo Foscolo e d'Ippolito Pindemonte. Firenze : Molini, Landi, 1809.

Shirley Foster. Across New Worlds: Nineteenth Century Women Travellers and their Writings. New York: Harvester, 1990.

*Sheila Frodella. Elizabeth Barrett Browning e il percorso verso la rinascita della donna artista, tesi di laurea, Università di Firenze, A.A., 2000-2001.

*Katerine Gaja. '"Scrivendo nel marmo": lettere inedite tra Elizabeth Barrett Browning e Hiram Powers. Antologia Vieusseux 15-16 (2003).

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*Winifred Gregory Gerould and James Thayer Gerould. A Guide to Trollope. London: The Trollope Society, 1948.

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Hall W. Griffin. The Life of Robert Browning: with Notices of his Writings, his Family, and his Friends. London: Meuthuen and Co., 1910.

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Olive Hamilton. Paradise of Exiles: Tuscany and the British. London: André Deutsch, 1974.

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*Julian Hawthorne. Nathaniel Hawthorne and His Wife: A Biography. Boston: Hougton, Mifflin, 1884. 2 vols.

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*__________. Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Florence

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*Laurence Hutton. Literary Landmarks of Florence. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1897.
Frontispiece, Villa Landor, pp. 55-58 and photograph, Walter Savage Landor's original tomb.

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*_______. Princess Casamassima. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977.

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Allison Levy, ed.  Widowhood and Visual Culture in Early Modern Europe. Ashgate, 2003.

_______. ‘Framing Widows: Mourning, Gender, and Portraiture in Early Modern Florence,’ in Allison Levy, ed., Widowhood and Visual Culture, 211-231.

_______. ‘Good Grief: Widow Portraiture and Masculine Anxiety in Early Modern England,’ in The Single Woman in Medieval and Early Modern England: Her Life and Representation, eds Dorothea Kehler and Laurel Amtower (Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2003), 258-80

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*L’idea di Firenze. Temi e interpretazioni nell’arte straniera dell’800, Atti del Convegno. Firenze: Centro Di, 17-19/12/1986.

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_______. Isaiah : A new translation: with a preliminary dissertation, and notes critical, philological, and explanatory. London: J. Dodsley and T. Cadell, 1779.

Percy Lubbock. Elizabeth Barrett Browning in her Letters. London: Smith, Elder and Co, 1906.

*Alta Macadam. Americans in Florence. Firenze: Giunti, 2003.

*Julia Maitland. Letters from Madras. Ed. Alyson Price. Otley: Woodstock Books, 2003.

Ferdinando Malvica. Alcune iscrizione di Luigi Muzzi. Roma: Aiani, 1825.

_________. Iscrizione italiane. 1830.

Sarolt Marinovich-Resch. 'The Dialogue of the Public and Private Voice in Aurora Leigh'. In Private and Public Voices in Victorian Poetry, ed. Sabine Colesch-Foisner, Holger Kelin. Tübingen: Stauffenburg Verlag, 2000. Pp.
 

*Jeannette Marks. The Family of the Barrett. New York: The Macmillian Company, 1938.

*Julia Markus. Across an Untried Sea: Discovering Lives Hidden in the Shadow of Convention and Time. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000. 

*Julia Markus. Dared and Done. The Marriage of Elizabeth and Robert Browning, Bloomsbury, 1995.

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*Maurizio Massetti. La Firenze dei Browning. Firenze: Pietro Chegai Editore, 2002.

Giuseppe Mazzini. Scritti. Imola: Cooperativa tipografico-editrice, 1906.

*Betty Miller. Robert Browning: A Portrait. London: John Murray, 1952.

Sara Mills. Discourses of Difference: An Analysis of Women’s Travel Writing and Colonialism. London: Routledge, 1991.

Czeslaw Milosz. Czlowiek wsród skorpionów. Warszawa: PIW, 1982

*John Milton. Paradise Lost. In Complete Poems and Major Prose. Ed. Merrit Y. Hughes. New York: Odyssey Press, 1957. Italian translation: Il Paradiso Perduto. Milano: L'ape della letterature per la gioventù, 1830.

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Melchior Missirini. Degli illustri italiani. 1838.

*Ellen Moers. Literary Women: The Great Writers. Garden City, 1977.

Monumenti sepolcrali della Toscana. 1819. 

William Morris, trans.from the Icelandic. Völsunga saga : the story of the Volsungs and Niblungs with certain songs from the elder Edda. London:  Walter Scott Publ. Co., [n.d.]

William Morris, trans. from the Icelandic. The story of Grettir the Strong. London : F. S. Ellis, 1869

William Morris, trans. from the Icelandic. Three northern love stories : and other tales. London : Ellis & White, 1875. [Contents: The story of Gunnlaug the Worm-tongue and Raven the Skald.--The story of Frithiof the Bold.--The story of Viglund the Fair.--The tale of Hogni and Hedinn.--The tale of Roi the Fool.--The tale of Thorstein Staff-smitten]

*Geoffrey C. Munn. Castellani and Giuliano, Revivalist Jewellers of the 19th Century. New York: Rizzoli, 1984.

Captain Henry Edward Napier, R.N. Florentine History from the Ealiest Authentic Records to the Accession of Ferdinand the Third, Grandduke of Tuscany. 6 vols. 1846-7.

Enrico Nencioni, 'Elisabetta Barrett Browning', Medaglione, 1884.

*Pamela Neville-Sington. Fanny Trollope: The Life and Adventures of a Clever Woman. London: Viking, 1997.

Anne O'Brien. 'Crossing Boundaries: Lady Morgan's Italy'.

_________. 'Florentine Shadows: Death, Duty and Santa Croce in George Eliot's Romola'. Journal of Anglo-Italian Studies 7 (2002), 63-80.

_________. 'Il Monumento a Dante: Storia di influssi internazionali'. Città di Vita 57 (2002), 508-520.

_________. 'S. Croce nell'occhio di viaggiatori britannici ottocenteschi'. Città di Vita 56 (2001), 557-566.

*Mrs Olifant. The Makers of Florence: Dante, Giotto, Savonarola, and their City. London: Macmillan, 1914.

Francesco Orioli. Iscrizioni di autori diversi con un discorso sulla Epigrafia Italiana. Bologna: Stampa dei Sassi, 1827.

Sutherland Orr. Life and Letters of Robert Browning. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1891.

Ossian. Fingal: an ancient epic poem, in six books; together with several other poems composed by Ossian, the son of Fingal; translated from the Gaelic language by James Macpherson. London: T. Becket and P.A. De Hondt, 1762

Ossian. Poesie di Ossian trasportate dalla prosa inglese in verso italiano dall'Ab. Melchior Cesarotti. Padova, II ricorretta ed accresciuta, 1772.

Adolfo Padovan. Epigrafia. Milano: Hoepli.

G. Parnessa. Le comunità greche a Livorno. Livorni, 1991. 

Giuliana Pellegrini. “Appunti su Seymour Kirkup”. Inghilterra e Toscana nell’Ottocento. Atti del convegno di Bagni di Lucca per il cinquantenario del British Institute of Florence, 22/24 settembre, 1967. Firenze: La Nuova Italia, 1968.109-17.

John Pemble. The Mediterranean Passion: Victorians and Edwardians in the South. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1988.

Hiram Powers Papers:

1. Letters between Perkins and Powers are located in three repositories:

I. The Marsh Collection at the Special Collections Department, Bailey-Howe Library, University of Vermont has letters from 1847 to 1871.
II. The Powers’ Papers at the Archives of American Art at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC has numerous holdings on the artist.
III. The New York Historical Society.
2. Documents and letters on the Longworth Powers’ line are preserved in the  Powers’ Family Collection at the Winter Park Public Library in Florida.  It is part of the Winter Park History and Archives Collection.  A grandson, named Hiram Powers, who married Rose Mills, was active in real estate in the beautiful  lakes around the Winter Park and Orlando area. He was also a Professor of Literature at what is now Rollins College in Winter Park which therefore has original statuary by the sculptor.

3. Louise Greenough Powers (1838-1929) married Alfred Ibbotson. She maintained several diaries that remained in the family. Louise and Alfred built a villa near her father’s in Florence. Their daughter, Mary Florence Ibbotson,  married Henri Michahelles of Florence and they had four children: Ernest, Mark, Roger and Christine. Dentler had access to the original diaries and information in private family correspondence from these Michahelles grandchildren.

4. A miscellaneous bound collection called the Sidney Brooks Letterbook.  Pages 2-10, 30-31, 56, 60-61 and 79 hold direct correspondence between the two men.

5. The Miner Kilbourne Kellog Papers 1841-1863 are deposited in the Manuscript  and Archives Collection of the Indiana Historical Society.

6. Letters from Powers to Eaton, 1845-1867, concerning these statues are found in The Eaton-Mayhew Papers in the Library of Maryland History belonging to the Maryland Historical Society.

7. The University Portrait Collection for the Harvard University Art Museums in  Cambridge, Massachusetts contain several photographs of Powers and of his statues in their Archives and Manuscript repositories.

8. There is a Hiram Powers’ scrapbook of printed American articles and advertisements titled Notices of Powers Works, 1847-1849, 1873 and 1876 among a collection on Hiram Powers and Powers’ Family Papers transferred  from the National Museum of American Art to the Smithsonian Institution between 1975 and 1985.

*Maddalena Pennacchi Punzi. Il mito di Corinne, viaggio in Italia e genio femminile in Anna Jameson, Margaret Fuller e George Eliot. Roma: Carocci, 2001.

Franco Pisa, Parnassìm, le grandi famiglie ebraiche italiane dal secolo XI al XIX, in Annuario di Studi Ebraici a cura di Ariel Toaff, X, 1980-1984. Roma: Carucci Editore. Pp. 291-491.

*The Poetics of Place: Florence Imagined. Ed. Irene Marchegiani Jones and Thomas Haeussler. Firenze: Olschki, 2001.

*Mary Sanders Pollock. Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Browning: A Creative Partnership. Aldershott: Aldgate, 2003.

Alexander Pope, Edward Young, Thomas Gray, Robert Blair, Thomas Parnell, John Philips, Oliver Goldsmith and William Shentsone. A Collection of Poems, Essays, and Epistles. Dublin: T. Armitage, 1771. [Contents include Pope's Essay on Man, The Universal Prayer, Eloisa to Abelard, Messiah, Young's Poem on the last day, Gray's Elegy, Blair's The Grave, Parnell's The Hermit, Philips' The Splendid Shilling, and Goldsmith's The Deserted Village, The Traveller.]

William Raymond. “Our Lady of Bellosguardo.” University of Toronto Quarterly, 12 (1943): 446-63.


*Regione Toscana, Giunta Regionale. Giardini di Toscana. Firenze: Edizioni Firenze, 2004. P. 39.

Ernst Renan. Life of Jesus. London: Mathieson, n.d. Translation of: Vie de Jésus, 13th ed

Donald Reynolds. Hiram Powers' Ideal Sculpture. New York: Garland Press, 1977.

_________. 'The "Unveiled Soul": Hiram Powers' Embodiment of the Ideal'. Art Bulletin 59 (1977).

I ricami datati della Sinagoga di Firenze. In I tessili antichi e il loro uso, atti del Convegno CISST. Torino: 1986. Pp. 76-77.

Anne Thackeray Ritchie. Records of Tennyson, Ruskin and Browning. London: Macmillan, 1893.

*Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Poems and Translations, 1850-1870. London: Oxford University Press, 1913.

Cecil Roth. Stemmi di famiglie ebraiche italiane. In Scritti in memoria di Leone Carpi. Saggi sull’Ebraismo italiano a cura di Daniel Carpi, Attilio Milano, Alexander Rofé, Milano-Gerusalemme, Editrice Fondazione Sally Mayer-Scuola Superiore di Studi Ebraici. Pp. 165-183.

*John Ruskin. Mornings in Florence. New York: Home Book Company, n.d.

__________. The Stones of Venice. London: J. M. Dent, [n.d.]

Giuseppe Sacchi. Viaggio in Toscana. Milano: Pirotta, 1835.

*Pastore Luigi Santini. Il Cimitero protestante detto 'degli Inglesi' in Firenze. Foto, Beatrice Künzi. Florence: Administration of Cimitero degli Allori, 1981.

*Pastore Luigi Santini. The Protestant Cemetery of Florence called 'The English Cemetery. Florence: Photography, Beatrice Künzi. Administration of Cimitero degli Allori, 1981.

Girolamo Savonarola. Libro della vita viduale. Firenze, 1491.

Juliana Schiesari. The Gendering of Melancholia: Feminism, Psychoanalysis and the Symbolics of Loss in Renaissance Literature. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1992.
 

Linda M. Shires, ed. Rewriting the Victorians: Theory, History and the Politics of Gender. London: Routledge, 1992.

Pamela Shurmer-Smith, e Kevin Hannam. Worlds of Desire, Realms of Power: A Cultural Geography. New York: Edward Arnold, 1994.

*Robert Hilton Simmons.. 'Neglected work of a once-famed Yankee artist comes to Washington'. Smithsonian (January, 1973), 46-53.

Graham Smith. The Stone of Dante and Later Florentine Celebrations of the Poet. Firenze: Olschki, 1990.

Susan Sontag. Illness as Metaphor. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1978.

Gaetano Sorgato. Memorie funebre. Padova: Tip. Del Seminario, 1856-1858.

*Madame de Staël. Corinne ou l'Italie. Ed. Simone Balayé. Paris: Gallimard, 1985.
 

Henry Staten. Eros in Mourning: Homer to Lacan. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

Emma Stebbins. Charlotte Cushman: Her Letters and Memories of Her Life. Boston: Houghton, Osgood, 1878.

*Storia delle arti in Toscana: L'Ottocento. Ed. Carlo Sisi. Firenze: Edifir, 1999-

*Wetmore William Story. Vallombrosa: taccuino di viaggio di fine Ottocento. A cura di Simonetta Berbeglia. Firenze: Editrice Clinamen, 2002.

Harriet Beecher Stowe. Uncle Tom's Cabin: or, Negro life in the slave states of America. London : C. H. Clarke, 1852.

David Friedrich Strauss. The Life of Jesus: Critically Examined. Trans. Marian Evans/George Eliot. London : Chapman Brothers, 1846. Translation of Das leben Jesu.

Sharon Strocchia, Death and Ritual in Renaissance Florence. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

János György Szilágyi, A Forty-Eighter's Vita Contemplativa. Ferenc Pulszky (1814-1889) , "The Hungarian Quarterly", Vol. XXXIX, n. 149, Spring 1998, pp. 3-17

Michail Talalay, A.M. Canepa. 'I sepolcri dei russi a Livorno'. In Nuovi Studi Livornesi (1994).

*Gardner Taplin. The Life of Elizabeth Barrett Browning. New York: Archon Books, 1970.

*David Tarallo. 'Cimitero degli inglesi però svizzero'. Toscana qui, 2, aprile 2003. Pp. 50-52.

*Bayard Taylor. The Poetical Works. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1894-

*Anthony Trollope. Tales of All Countries. London: Chapman and Hall, 1869.

*_________. An Eye for an Eye . London: Anthony Blond, 1966.

*_________. Barchester Towers. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1983.

*_________. Can You Forgive Her? Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986.

*_________. Doctor Thorne. Harmondworth: Penguin, 1991.

*_________. Dr Wortle's School. Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1999.

*_________. The Duke's Children. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1995.

*_________. The Eustace Diamonds. Harmondwworth: Penguin, 1986.

*_________. Framley Parsonage. Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1986.

*_________. He Knew He Was Right. Harmondworth: Penguin, 1994.

*_________. The Last Chronicle of Barset. Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1986.

*_________. Tales of all Countries. London: Chapman and Hall, 4th edition.

*_________. Phineas Redux. London: Chapman & Hall, 4th edition.

*_________. Phineas Finn, The Irish Member. Harmonsdworth: Penguin, 1995.

*_________. The Prime Minister. Harmonsdworth: Penguin, 1994.

*_________. The Small House at Allington. Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1991.

*_________. The Warden, ed. Robin Gilmour. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 2000.

*_________. The Way We Live Now. Harmonsdworth, Penguin: 1994.

*Frances Trollope. Domestic Manners of the Americans. Lithographs by Auguste Hervieu. London: The Folio Society, 1974.

*_________. Paris and the Parisians in 1835. Engravings, A. Hervieu. London: Richard Bentley, 1836. 2 vols.

*_________. Vienna and the Austrians, with some Account of a Journey through Swabia, Bavaria, the Tyrol, and the Salzbourg. Paris: Baudry's European Library, 1838. 2 vols.

*Thomas Adolphus Trollope. What I Remember. London: Richard Bentley, 1887. 2 vols.

________. 'Some Recollections of Hiram Powers'. Lippincott's Magazine of Popular Literature and Science 4 (1875).

Giampaolo Trotta. Cimiteri ebraici a Firenze. Per un itinerario attraverso i luoghi storici e urbani della memoria, in «Storia Urbana», LIX, 1992, pp. 127-151.

*__________. Luoghi di culto non-cattolici nella Toscana dell'Ottocento. Presentazione, Antonio Paolucci. Firenze: Becocci/Scala, 1997.

Henry Tuckerman. Book of the Artists: American Artist Life. New Yorek: Putnam, 1867.

Alan Underman, Dictionary of Jewish Lore and Legend, London, Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1991 [traduzione italiana: Dizionario di usi e leggende ebraiche, a cura di Anna Foa, Roma-Bari: La Terza, 1994].

*Unfolding the South. Nineteenth-century British women writers and artists in Italy. Ed. Alison Chapman and Jane Stabler. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003.
 

Marcello Vannucci. L’avventura degli stranieri in Toscana: Ottocento e Novecento, fra cronaca e storia. Aosta: Musumeci, 1981.

Pasquale Villari. Life and Times of Girolamo Savonarola. Trans. Linda White Villari. London : T. Fisher Unwin New York Charles Scribner's Sons, [1889]

Verena Von Der Heyden Rynch. I salotti d’ Europa. Milano: Garzanti, 1996.

Maria Przezdzieckich Walewska. Polacy w Paryzu, Florencji i Dreznie. Warszawa: Ksieg.F.Hoesicka, 1930.

Maisie Ward. The Tragi-Comedy of Pen Browning. New York, 1972.

*John Whitely. Oxford and the Pre-Raphaelites. Oxford: Ashmolean Museum, 1993.


Linda White. Tuscan Hills and Venetian Waters.

Lilian Whiting. “Charlotte Cushman.” Our Famous Women: Lives and Deeds of Distinguished American Women of our Times. Hartford: Worthington, 1884. 207-229.

_______ The Florence of Landor. London: Gay and Bird, 1905.

_______ Italy: the Magic Land. Boston: Little and Brown, 1907.

_______ Kate Field: A Record. Boston: Little and Brown, 1899.

_______ Women Who Have Ennobled Life. Philadelphia: The Union Press, 1915.

*The Women of the Blue Grass [Issa Desha Breckinridge and Mary Desha]. 'The Work shall Praise the Master': A Memorial to Joel T. Hart, The Kentucky Sculptor. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke, 1884.

*Virginia Woolf. 'Aurora Leigh'. The Second Common Reader.

Nathalia Wright. American Novelists in Italy: The Discoverers, Allston to James. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1965.

*Richard P. Wunder. Hiram Powers, Vermont Sculptor, 1805-1873. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1991. 2 vols, Volume I: Life, Volume 2: Sculpture.

*Dr Richard P. Wunder Papers, Van Wylen Library, Hope College, Holland, Michigan, USA. Copied by Patti Carlson, Catalogued by Jeffrey Begeal, 2004.

*Mary Young. The Life and Times of Aonio Paleario or a Biography of the Italian Reformer in the Sixteenth Century. 2 vols. London: Bell and Baldy, 1860.


COMPARING CEMETERIES

We invite photo essays of other historic cemeteries, particularly those in England, Ireland, Switzerland and America, for inclusion here.

Our 'English' Cemetery was once like a garden and filled with trees. Our Icelandic participant, Kristin Bragadottir, of the National and University Library, has sent us the following photographs of the cemetery in Reykjavik, visited by William Morris and Daniel Willard Fiske. On Iceland the sheep have destroyed the trees, the land being barren, except in walled cemeteries. The Black Death reached Iceland fifty years later than Europe for there had been no ships, from lack of wood, with which to sail the Atlantic, though when the Vikings had reached that island it had been thickly forested. Yet in the tombs in Reykjavik one can see the same shapes, the same materials, as are used for tombs in Florence.


 

Many Protestant Irish serving in the British military forces in India found burial in Florence. Meanwhile, in Ireland, at the time of the English Cemetery in Florence, Catholics were dying in the Potato Famine, and buried in umarked graves. See http://www.iol.ie/~anchorhold/HolyPlaces/famine2.jpg
www.iol.ie/~anchorhold/HolyPlaces/faminegraveyard.htm
http://vassun.vassar.edu/~sttaylor/FAMINE/
 


RETURN TO OPENING FILE
 

PROGRAMMA DEL CONVEGNO, ‘LA CITTA’ E IL LIBRO III’/ THE CITY AND THE BOOK III/ ELOQUENZA SILENZIOSA: VOCI DEL RICORDO INCISE NEL CIMITERO ‘DEGLI INGLESI’/ MARBLE SILENCE, WORDS IN STONE: FLORENCE'S ‘ENGLISH CEMETERY’

3-4 June 2004, Sala Ferri, Gabinetto G.P. Vieusseux, Palazzo Strozzi

Giovedì 3 giugno 2004/ Thursday 3 June 2004/ Ore 9.00/ 9:00 a.m.

SALUTI/ GREETINGS
Marcello Fazzini, Presidente del Gabinetto G.P. Vieusseux
Eugenio Giani, Assessore alle Relazioni Internazionali del Comune di Firenze
Giannozzo Pucci, Presidente dell'Associazione Internazionale ‘Fioretta Mazzei’
Gerardo Kraft, Presidente dei Cimiteri Evangelici di Firenze
Vanessa Hall-Smith, Director, The British Institute of Florence

INTRODUZIONE/ INTRODUCTION

L’internazionalità di Firenze: il ricordo di Vieusseux nel Cimitero detto ‘degli Inglesi’/ Cosmopolitan Florence: Vieusseux's Memorial in the ‘English' Cemetery Maurizio Bossi, Gabinetto G.P. Vieusseux, Firenze

'Tuoni di bianco silenzio': Il Cimitero ‘degli Inglesi’ come biblioteca e come archivio/ 'Thunders of White Silence': The ‘English Cemetery’ as Library, as Archive Julia Bolton Holloway, Aureo Anello Associazione Biblioteca e Bottega Fioretta Mazzei e Amici del Cimitero 'degli Inglesi'
 

TEMPO/ SPAZIO/ BIBLIOGRAFIA //TIME/ SPACE/ BIBLIOGRAPHY


Si ringraziano per la collaborazione
Lapo Mazzei, Carlo Steinhauslin, Maurizio Bossi
 

AUREO ANELLO ASSOCIAZIONE BIBLIOTECA E BOTTEGA FIORETTA MAZZEI
E AMICI DEL CIMITERO 'DEGLI INGLESI'

FIDUCIARIA TOSCANA SPA

ROTARY CLUB BISENZIO-FIRENZE
 

CHIESA EVANGELICA RIFORMATA SVIZZERA

AGENZIA PER IL TURISMO FIRENZE

GABINETTO G.P. VIEUSSEUX

    POLISTAMPA s.n.c.
 

FLEMING YOUTH  S.r.l.
 

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