FLORIN WEBSITE © JULIA BOLTON HOLLOWAYAUREO ANELLO ASSOCIAZIONE, 1997-2017: MEDIEVAL: BRUNETTO LATINO, DANTE ALIGHIERI, SWEET NEW STYLE: BRUNETTO LATINO, DANTE ALIGHIERI, & GEOFFREY CHAUCER || VICTORIAN: WHITE SILENCE: FLORENCE'S 'ENGLISH' CEMETERY || ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING || WALTER SAVAGE LANDOR || FRANCES TROLLOPE || ABOLITION OF SLAVERY || FLORENCE IN SEPIA  || CITY AND BOOK CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII || MEDIATHECA 'FIORETTA MAZZEI' || EDITRICE AUREO ANELLO CATALOGUE || UMILTA WEBSITE || RINGOFGOLD WEBSITE || LINGUE/LANGUAGES: ITALIANO, ENGLISH || VITA
New
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ANNA JAMESON

SACRED AND LEGENDARY ART
 
 

Anna Jameson, the great friend of Elizabeth Barrett Browning, who accompanied her to Italy upon her elopement with Robert, had grown up with her father, Denis Brownell Murphy, who was court painter in residence at Windsor Castle, having access to rich treasures of art which she could study. Her book on Christian art (among many others she wrote) was to influence Ruskin and the Pre-Raphaelites.

Her father's portrait of her as Carlo Dolci's Poetry

Anna Jameson in old age

The illustrations that she and her niece, Gerardine Bates, drew for her books are now mostly at the Armstrong Browning Library, Baylor University, Texas, and the original drawings are more exquisite than are the engravings. The young Gerardine formed a part of the elopement party from Paris to Pisa with the Brownings, which must have seemed to her as if a chapter from Anna Jameson's book, The Loves of the Poets, which had already influenced Elizabeth Barrett Moulton Barrett to propose marriage to Tennyson and Browning (neither of whom she had met at that time) in her poem, 'Lady Geraldine's Courtship'. The images will take time to download from the web so patience is necessary but worthwhile.


Crosses
 

From page:  25
 
 

The CROSS.  About the tenth century the Fish disappeared, and the Cross ­ symbol of our redemption from the apostolic times ­ became the sole and universal emblem of the Christian faith.  The cross placed in the hand of a saint is usually the Latin cross (1), the form ascribed to the cross on which our Saviour suffered.  Other crosses are used as emblems or ornaments, but still having the same signification; as the Greek cross (2), in which the arms are all of the same length; the transverse cross, on which St. Andrew is supposed to have suffered, in this form (3); the Egyptian cross, sometimes placed in the hands of St. Philip the apostle, and it was also the form of the crutch of St. Anthony, and embroidered on his cope or robe, hence it is called St. Anthony's cross (4).  There is also the Maltese cross, and various ornamental crosses.  The double cross on the top of a staff, instead of the crosier, is borne by the Pope only; the staff with a single cross by the Greek bishops.
 

At first, the Cross was a sign only. When formed of gold or silver, the five wounds of Christ were signified by a ruby or carbuncle at each extremity, and one in the centre. It was not till the sixth century that the Cross became a CRUCIFIX, no longer an emblem, but an image.
 

Crowns
 

From page:  29
 

The CROWN, as introduced in Christian Art, is either an emblem or an attribute.  It has been the emblem from all antiquity of victory, and of recompense due to superior power or virtue.  In this sense the word and the image are used in Scripture in many passages:  for example, "Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of glory."  And in this sense, as the recompense of those who had fought the good fight to the end, and conquered, the crown became the especial symbol of the glory of martyrdom.  In very ancient pictures, a hand is seen coming out of heaven holding a wreath or circlet; afterwards it is an angel who descends with a crown, which is sometimes a coronet of gold and jewels, sometimes a wreath of palm or myrtle.  In general only the females martyrs wear the symbolical crown of glory; martyrs of the other sex hold the crown in their hands, or it is borne by an angel.  Hence we may presume that the crown, which among the Jews was the especial ornament of a bride, signified the bride or spouse of Christ ­ one dedicated to virginity for his sake; and in this sense, down to the present time, the crown is placed on the head of a nun at the moment of consecration. Therefore in the old pictures of female martyrs we may interpret the crown in this double sense, as signifying at once the bride and the martyr.
 

But it is necessary also to distinguish between the symbol and the attribute:  thus, where St. Cecilia and St. Barbara wear the crown, it is the symbol of their glorious martyrdom; when St. Catherine and St. Ursula wear the crown, it is at once as the symbol of martyrdom and the attribute of their royal rank as princesses. The crown is also the symbol of sovereignty.  When it is placed on the head of the Virgin, it is as Queen of Heaven, and also as the "Spouse" of "Scripture allegory. But the crown is also an attribute, and frequently, when worn by a saint or placed at his feet, signifies that he was royal or of princely birth:  as in the pictures of Louis of France, St. William, St. Elizabeth, St. Helena, and many others.
 

The crowns in the Italian pictures are generally a wreath, or a simple circle of gold and jewels, or a coronet radiated with a few points.  But in the old German pictures the crown is often of most magnificent workmanship, blazing with jewels.
 

I have seen a real silver crown placed on the figures of certain popular saints, but as a votive tribute, not an emblem.
 


 

Palms
 

From page:  30
 

The PALM, the ancient classical symbol of victory and triumph, was early assumed by the Christians as the universal symbol of martyrdom, and for this adaptation of a pagan ornament they found warrant in Scripture:  Rev. vii.9, "And after this I beheld, and lo, a great multitude stood before the throne, clothed with white robes, and with palms in their hands." . . . "And he said to me, These are they which came out of great tribulation."  Hence in pictures of martyrdoms an angel descends with the palm; hence it is figured on the tombs of early martyrs, and placed in the hands of those who suffered in the cause of truth, as expressing their final victory over the powers of sin and death.

The sensual think with reverence of the palm
Which the chaste votary wields.
The palm varies in form from a small leaf to the size of a palm branch, almost a tree.  It is very small in the early Italian pictures, very large in the Spanish pictures.  In the Siena pictures it has a bunch of dates depending from it.  It is only in late pictures that the palm, with a total disregard to the sacredness of its original signification, is placed on the ground, or under the feet of the saint.
 
 

Cherubs
 

From page:  42
 

In ancient pictures and illuminations which exhibit the glorification of the Trinity, Christ, or the Virgin, the hierarchies of angels are represented in circles around them, orb within orb.  This is called a glory of angels. In Pictures it is seldom complete:  instead of nine circles, the painters content themselves with one or two circles only.  The innermost circles, the Seraphim and the Cherubim, are in general represented as heads merely, with two or four or six wings, and of a bright red or blue color; sometimes with variegated wings, green, yellow, violet, etc.  this emblem ­ intended to shadow forth to human comprehension a pure spirit glowing with love and intelligence, in which all that is bodily is put away, and only the head, the seat of soul, and wings, the attribute of spirit and swiftness, retained ­ is of Greek origin. When first adopted I do not know, but I have met with it in Greek MSS. of  the ninth century.  Down to the eleventh century the faces were human, but not childish; the infant head was afterwards adopted to express innocence in addition to love and intelligence.
 

Such was the expressive and poetical symbol which degenerated in the later periods of Art into those little fat baby heads, with curly hair and small wings under the chin, which the more they resemble nature in color, feature, and detail, the more absurd they become, the original meaning being wholly lost or perverted.
 
 

Glory of Angels
 

From page:  44
 

In a Coronation of the Virgin (Collection of Prince Wallerstein, Kensington Palace), a glory of Seraphim overarches the principal group.  Here the angelic beings are wholly of a bright red color; they are human to the waist, with hands clasped in devotion; the bodies and arms covered with plumage, but the forms terminating in wings; all uniformly red.
 

Assyrian Winged Genius
 

From page:  47
 

I have seen on the Gnostic gems figures with four wings, two springing from the shoulders and two from the loins. This portentous figure, from the ruins of Nineveh, is similarly constructed [p. 47].
 
 

Cherub (from early MS.)
 

From page:  49
 

And Isaiah, ch. vi., in the description of the Seraphim, "Each one had six wings; with twain he covered his face, and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly."  By the early artists this description was followed out in a manner more conscientious and reverential than poetical.
 
 

Angel (Bellini)
 

From page:  52
 

Angel (Melozzo da Forli)
 

From page:  53
 

...whereas the angelic choirs of Fiesole, Ghirlandajo, and Raphael seem to be playing as an act of homage for the delight of the Divine Personages, those of Vivarini and Bellini and Palma appear as if enchanted by their own music; and both together are united in the grand and beautiful angels of Melozzo da Forlì...
 

Angel (Melozzo da Forli)
 

From page:  55
 

Angel bearing the Moon (Greek, 12th century)
 

From page:  57

Expulsion from Paradise
 

From page:  59
 

In relating "the expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise," it is not said that an angel was the immediate agent of the divine wrath, but it is so represented in works of Art.  In the most ancient treatment I have met with (MS. 10th century, Paris, Bibl. Nationale), a majestic armed angel drives forth the delinquents, and a cherub with six wings stands as guard before the gate.  I found the same motif in the sculptures on the façade of the Duomo at Orvieto.

Angels visiting Abraham (Raphael)
 

From page:  63
 

More modern artists have given us the celestial visitants merely as men.  Preeminent in this style of conception are the pictures of Raphael and Murillo.
 

Floorplan of Riccardi chapel
 

From page:  65
 

The happiest, the most beautiful, instance I can remember of this particular treatment is the little chapel in the Riccardi Palace at Florence.  The chapel is in the form of a Greek cross, and the frescoes [by Benozzo Gozzoli] are thus disposed: -

The walls 1, 2, and 3, are painted with the journey of the Wise Men, who, with a long train of attendants mounted on horseback and gorgeously appareled, are seen traveling over hill and dale led by the guiding star.  Over the altar was the Nativity [by Filippo Lippi, now removed to the Academy]; on each side (4, 5) is seen a choir of angels, perhaps fifty in number, rejoicing over the birth of the Redeemer:  some kneel in adoration, with arms folded over the bosom, others offer flowers; some come dancing forward with flowers in their hands or in the lap of their robes; others sing and make celestial music; they have glories round their heads, all inscribed alike, "Gloria in excelsis Deo!"
 

Angels (Angelico)
 

From page:  71
 

[Benozzo Gozzoli's] master Angelico (worthy of the name!) never reached the same power of expressing the rapturous rejoicing of celestial beings, but his conception of the angelic nature remains unapproached, unapproachable (A.D. 1430); it is only his, for it was the gentle, passionless, refined nature of the recluse, which stamped itself there. Angelico's angels are unearthly, not so much in form as in sentiment; and superhuman, not in power but in purity.
 


 

Angels in Adoration (Granacci)
 

From page:  72
 

Most beautiful are the groups of adoring angels by Francesco Granacci so serenely tender, yet with a touch of grave earnestness which gives them a character apart:  they have the air of guardian angels who have discharged their trust, and to whom the Supreme utterance has voiced forth, "Servant of God, well done!"  (In the Academy at Florence: they must have formed the side wings to an enthroned Madonna and Child.)
 


 
 
 

Angel (Perugino)
 

From page:  73
 

Perugino's angels convey the idea of an unalterable sweetness:  those of his earlier time have much natural
grace, those of his later time are mannered.
 


 

Angels (Titian)
 

From page:  75
 

And Titian's angels impress me in a similar manner ­ I mean those in the glorious Assumption at Venice ­ with their childish forms and features, but with an expression caught from beholding the face of "our Father that is in heaven:" it is glorified infancy.  I remember standing before this picture, contemplating those lovely spirits one after another, until a thrill came over me like that which I felt when Mendelssohn played the organ, and I became music while I listened.  The face of one of those angels is to the face
of a child just what that of the Virgin in the same picture is compared with the fairest of the daughters of earth:  it is not here superiority of beauty, but mind and music and love, kneaded, as it were, into form and color.
 

Angel (Raphael)
 

From page:  77
 

But Raphael, excelling in all things, is here excellent above all:  his angels combine, in a higher degree than any other, the various faculties and attributes in which the fancy loves to clothe these pure immortal, beatified creatures.
 

Angel (Rembrandt)
 

From page:  79
 

Strange to say, the most poetical painter of angels in the seventeenth century is that inspired Dutchman, Rembrandt; not that his angels are scriptural; still less classical; and beautiful they are not, certainly ­ often the reverse; but if they have not the Miltonic dignity and grace, they are at least as unearthly and as poetical as any of the angelic phantasms in Dante, - unhuman, unembodied creatures, compounded of light and darkness. "the somewhat between a thought and a thing," haunting the memory like apparitions. For instance, look at his Jacob's Dream, at Dulwich; or his etching of the Angels appearing to the
Shepherds, - breaking through the night, scattering the gloom, making our eyes ache with excess of glory, - the Gloria in excelsis ringing through the fancy while we gaze!

Angel (Niccolo del Arca)
 

From page:  81
 
 


 

Archangels (Cimabue)
 

From page:  83
 
 


 
 

Archangels (attributed to Orcagna)
 

From page:  85
 


 

Image title:  Angels (attributed to Orcagna)
 

From page:  87


 

St. Michael (Angelico)
 

From page:  95
 

There is a most beautiful little figure by Angelico, of St. Michael standing in his character of archangel and patron of the Church Militant, "as the winged saint;" no demon, no attribute except the lance and shield.  The attitude, so tranquilly elegant, may be seen in this sketch.  In the original the armor is of a dark crimson and gold, the wings are of rainbow tints, a vivid and delicate; a flame of lambent fire rests on the brow.  [The figure is one of a series of panels let into the frame of Angelico's Deposition, in the Florence Academy.]
 

Image title:  St. Michael (Martin Schoen)
 

From page:  98
 

By Martin Schoen:  St. Michael attired in a long loose robe and floating mantle, tramples on the demon; he has thrown down the shield, and with his lance in both hands, but without effort, and even with a calm angelic dignity, prepares to transfix his adversary.  The figure is singularly elegant.  The demon has not here the usual form of a dragon, but is a horrible nondescript reptile, with multitudinous flexile claws, like those of a crab, stretched out to seize and entangle the unwary; - for an emblematical figure, very significant.
 

IN PROGRESS

Transcribed, Carolyn Carpenter, from Sacred and Legendary Art by Anna Jameson. Edited, with additional notes by Estelle M. Hurll and abundantly illustrated with designs from ancient and modern art. In Two Volumes. Volume I. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin and Company, The Riverside Press Cambridge, M DCCC XCVII.
 
 

FLORIN WEBSITE © JULIA BOLTON HOLLOWAY, AUREO ANELLO ASSOCIATION, 1997-2016:  FLORENCE'S 'ENGLISH' CEMETERY || BIBLIOTECA E BOTTEGA FIORETTA MAZZEI || ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING || FLORENCE IN SEPIA  ||  BRUNETTO LATINO, DANTE ALIGHIERI AND GEOFFREY CHAUCER || E-BOOKS || ANGLO-ITALIAN STUDIES || CITY AND BOOK I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII || AUREO ANELLO, CATALOGUE

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LIMITED EDITION

ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING

SONNETS AND BALLAD

IN ENGLISH AND ITALIAN
 

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Two hundred and fifty numbered, signed editions of Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Sonnets from the Portuguese, Sonnet 'On Hiram Powers' Greek Slave', and the ballad, Runaway Slave at Pilgrim's Point, are edited, translated, typeset in William Morris Troy and Golden fonts, handbound in hand-marbled papers. Elizabeth finally, shyly, gave the sonnet cycle to Robert in Bagni di Lucca, Italy, after the birth of their child, 'Pen', though she had written them during their Wimpole Street, London, courtship. Robert immediately had them published. These volumes are produced in the English Cemetery in Florence, Italy, where both Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Hiram Powers are buried. Their sales will help fund the restoration of the Swiss-owned, so-called 'English' Cemetery.

To order this book or most others below, please write to:

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Florence in Sepia
 
 

FIRENZE/FLORENCE
 
 


 
 

IN SEPIA






Concentrating on Florence, this CD contains e-books, such as Augustus J.C. Hare's Florence, Susan and Joanna Horner's Walks in Florence, an album of nineteenth-century photographs of Italy purchased by the Mother Foundress of the Community of the Holy Family, illustrative materials on Elizabeth Barrett Browning, etc. It is a useful guide for scholars of medieval, Renaissance and Victorian Florence and for tourists to modern Florence.
 

FLORIN WEBSITE © JULIA BOLTON HOLLOWAYAUREO ANELLO ASSOCIAZIONE, 1997-2017: MEDIEVAL: BRUNETTO LATINO, DANTE ALIGHIERI, SWEET NEW STYLE: BRUNETTO LATINO, DANTE ALIGHIERI, & GEOFFREY CHAUCER || VICTORIAN: WHITE SILENCE: FLORENCE'S 'ENGLISH' CEMETERY || ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING || WALTER SAVAGE LANDOR || FRANCES TROLLOPE || ABOLITION OF SLAVERY || FLORENCE IN SEPIA  || CITY AND BOOK CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII || MEDIATHECA 'FIORETTA MAZZEI' || EDITRICE AUREO ANELLO CATALOGUE || UMILTA WEBSITE || RINGOFGOLD WEBSITE || LINGUE/LANGUAGES: ITALIANO, ENGLISH || VITA
New
: Dante vivo || White Silence

LIBRARY PAGES: BIBLIOTECA E BOTTEGA FIORETTA MAZZEI || ITS ONLINE CATALOGUE || HOW TO RUN A LIBRARY || MANUSCRIPT FACSIMILES || MANUSCRIPTS || MUSEUMS || FLORENTINE LIBRARIES, MUSEUMS || HOW TO BUILD CRADLES AND LIBRARIES || BOTTEGA || PUBLICATIONS || LIMITED EDITIONS || LIBRERIA EDITRICE FIORENTINA || SISMEL EDIZIONI DEL GALLUZZO || FIERA DEL LIBRO || FLORENTINE BINDING || CALLIGRAPHY WORKSHOPS || BOOKBINDING WORKSHOPS